The following list of peer reviewed publications are from projects conducted at, or supported by, Summit Station.



  1. Avva, J., K. Bechtol, T. Chesebro, L. Cremonesi, C. Deaconu, A. Gupta, A. Ludwig, W. Messino, C. Miki, R. Nichol, E. Oberla, M. Ransom, A. Romero-Wolf, D. Saltzberg, C. Schlupf, N. Shipp, G. Varner, A.G. Vieregg, S.A. Wissel, Development toward a ground-based interferometric phased array for radio detection of high energy neutrinos, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 869, 46-55, doi:10.1016/j.nima.2017.07.009 (2017)
  2. Bellisario, C., Brindley, H. E., Murray, J. E., Last, A., Pickering, J., Harlow, R. C.,... Chen, X., Retrievals of the far infrared surface emissivity over the Greenland Plateau using the Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS), Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122, doi:10.1002/2017JD027328 (2017)
  3. Brunt, K.M., R.L. Hawley, E.R. Lutz, M. Studinger, J.G. Sonntag, M.A. Hofton, L.C. Andrews, and T.A. Neumann, Assessment of NASA airborne laser altimetry data using ground-based GPS data near Summit Station, Greenland, The Cryosphere, 11, 681-692, doi:10.5194/tc-11-681-2017 (2017)
  4. Burkhart J.F., A. Kylling, C.B. Schaaf, Z. Wang, W. Bogren, R. Storvold, S. Solbø, C.A. Pedersen, and S. Gerland, Unmanned aerial system nadir reflectance and MODIS nadir BRDF-adjusted surface reflectances intercompared over Greenland, The Cryosphere, 11, 1575-1589, doi:10.5194/tc-11-1575-2017 (2017)
  5. Connolly, A., and A.G. Vieregg, Radio Detection of High Energy Neutrinos, Neutrino Astronomy, Chapter 15: Radio Detection of High Energy Neutrinos, 217-240, doi:10.1142/9789814759410_0015 (2017)
  6. Haehnel, R.B, A Creep Model for High-Density Snow, ERDC/CRREL TR-17-7 (2017)
  7. Lacour, A., H. Chepfer, M.D. Shupe, N.B. Miller, V. Noel, J. Kay, D.D. Turner, and R. Guzman, Greenland Clouds Observed in CALIPSO-GOCCP: Comparison with Ground-Based Summit Observations, Journal of Climate, 30(15), 6065-6083, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0552.1 (2017)
  8. Lai, A.M., M.M. Shafer, J.E. Dibb, C.M. Polashenski, J.J. Schauer, Elements and inorganic ions as source tracers in recent Greenland snow, In Atmospheric Environment, 164, 205-215, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.05.048 (2017)
  9. Lewis, G., E. Osterberg, R. Hawley, B. Whitmore, H.P. Marshall, and J. Box, Regional Greenland accumulation variability from Operation IceBridge airborne accumulation radar, The Cryosphere, 11, 773-788, doi:10.5194/tc-11-773-2017 (2017)
  10. Maselli, O.J., N.J. Chellman, M. Grieman, L. Layman, J.R. McConnell, D. Pasteris, R.H. Rhodes, E. Saltzman, and M. Sigl, Sea ice and pollution-modulated changes in Greenland ice core methanesulfonate and bromine, Clim. Past, 13, 39-59, doi:10.5194/cp-13-39-2017 (2017)
  11. McIlhattan, E.A., T.S. L’Ecuyer, and N.B. Miller, Observational Evidence Linking Arctic Supercooled Liquid Cloud Biases in CESM to Snowfall Processes, Journal of Climate, 30(12), 4477-4495 (2017)
  12. Miller, N.B., M.D. Shupe, C.J. Cox, D. Noone, P.O.G. Persson, and K. Steffen, Surface energy budget responses to radiative forcing at Summit, Greenland, The Cryosphere, 11, 497-516, doi:10.5194/tc-11-497-2017 (2017)
  13. Newland, M.J., P. Martinerie, E. Witrant, D. Helmig, D.R. Worton, C. Hogan, W.T. Sturges, and C.E. Reeves, Changes to the chemical state of the Northern Hemisphere atmosphere during the second half of the twentieth century, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8269-8283, doi:10.5194/acp-17-8269-2017 (2017)
  14. Rhodes, R.H., X. Yang, E.W. Wolff, J.R. McConnell, and M.M. Frey, Sea ice as a source of sea salt aerosol to Greenland ice cores: a model-based study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9417-9433, doi:10.5194/acp-17-9417-2017 (2017)
  15. Toyokuni, G., H. Takenaka, R. Takagi, M. Kanao, S. Tsuboi, Y. Tono, D. Childs, D. Zhao, Changes in Greenland ice bed conditions inferred from seismology, In Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, doi:10.1016/j.pepi.2017.10.010 (2017)
  16. Wissel, S., J. Avva, K. Bechtol, T. Chesebro, L. Cremonesi, A. Gupta, A. Ludwig, W. Messino, C. Miki, R. Nichol, E. Oberla, A. Romero-Wolf, D. Saltzberg, C. Schlupf, N. Shipp, G. Varner, A. Vieregg, Phased arrays: A strategy to lower the energy threshold for neutrinos, EPJ Web Conf. 135 05007, doi:10.1051/epjconf/201713505007 (2017)
  17. Zuev, V.V., N.E. Zueva, E.S. Savelieva, The role of the Mt. Merapi eruption in the 2011 Arctic ozone depletion, Atmospheric Environment, 166, 327-333, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.07.040 (2017)


  1. Berkelhammer, M., D.C. Noone, H.C. Steen-Larsen, A. Bailey, C.J. Cox, M.S. O'Neill, D. Schneider, K. Steffe, J.W.C. White, Surface-atmosphere decoupling limits accumulation at Summit, Greenland, Science Advances, 2, e1501704, doi:10.1126/sciadv.1501704 (2016)
  2. Bogren, W.S., J.F. Burkhart, and A. Kylling, Tilt error in cryospheric surface radiation measurements at high latitudes: a model study, The Cryosphere, 10, 613-622, doi:10.5194/tc-10-613-2016 (2016)
  3. Dommergue, A., P. Martinerie, J. Courteaud, E. Witrant, and D.M. Etheridge, A new reconstruction of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury trend over the last 60 years from Greenland firn records, Atmospheric Environment, 136,156–164, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.04.012 (2016)
  4. Fibiger, D.L., J.E. Dibb, D. Chen, J.L. Thomas, J.F. Burkhart, L.G. Huey, and M.G. Hastings, Analysis of nitrate in the snow and atmosphere at Summit, Greenland: Chemistry and transport, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 5010–5030, doi:10.1002/2015JD024187 (2016)
  5. Manninen, T., P. Lahtinen, K.Anttila and A. Riihelä, Detection of snow surface roughness and hoar at Summit, Greenland, using RADARSAT data, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 37(12), doi:10.1080/01431161.2015.1131873 (2016)
  6. Pettersen, C., R. Bennartz, M.S. Kulie, A.J. Merrelli, M.D. Shupe, and D.D. Turner, Microwave signatures of ice hydrometeors from ground-based observations above Summit, Greenland, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4743-4756, doi:10.5194/acp-16-4743-2016 (2016)
  7. Van Tricht, K., S. Lhermitte, J.T.M. Lenaerts, I.V. Gorodetskaya, T.S. L'Ecuyer, B. Noel, M.R. van den Broeke, D.D. Turner, N. P. M. van Lipzig, Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff, Nature Communications, 7:10266, doi:10.1038/ncomms10266 (2016)
  8. Vieregg, A.G., K. Bechtol, and A. Romero-Wolf, A technique for detection of PeV neutrinos using a phased radio array, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, 2016(02), doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2016/02/005 (2016)


  1. Avva, J., J. Kovac, C. Miki, D. Saltzberg, and A. Vieregg, An in situ measurement of the radio-frequency attenuation in ice at Summit Station, Greenland, J. Glaciol., 61(229), doi:10.3189/2015JoG15J057 (2015)
  2. Bailey, A., D. Noone, M. Berkelhammer, H.C. Steen-Larsen, and P. Sato, The stability and calibration of water vapor isotope ratio measurements during long-term deployments, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4521–4538, doi:10.5194/amt-8-4521-2015 (2015)
  3. Bechtol, K., A. Vieregg, A. Romero-Wolf, and S. Wissel, A New Trigger for Detection of PeV to EeV Neutrinos Using a Phased Radio Array, Proceedings of Science, 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference, PoS(ICRC2015)1171, (2015)
  4. Giese, A. and R. Hawley, Reconstructing thermal properties of firn at Summit, Greenland, from a temperature profile time series, J. Glaciol., 61(227), 503-510, doi:10.3189/2015JoG14J204 (2015)
  5. Helmig, D., M. Muñoz, J. Hueber, C. Mazzoleni, L. Mazzoleni, R. C. Owen, M. Val-Martin, P. Fialho, C. Plass-Duelmer, P.I. Palmer, A.C. Lewis, and G. Pfister, Climatology and atmospheric chemistry of the non-methane hydrocarbons ethane and propane over the North Atlantic, Elem Sci Anth, 3:54, doi:10.12952/journal.elementa.000054 (2015)
  6. Hensley, S., D. Moller, R. Kwok, X. Wu, S. Oveisgharan, and T. Michel, Interferometric penetration into dry snow and sea ice at Ka-band, Synthetic Aperture Radar (APSAR), 2015 IEEE 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on, doi:10.1109/APSAR.2015.7306327 (2015)
  7. Hougham, J., K. C. Bradley Eitel, and B. G. Miller, Technology-Enriched STEM Investigations of Place: Using Technology to Extend the Senses and Build Connections to and Between Places in Science Education, Journal of Geoscience Education: May 2015, 63(2), 90-97, doi:10.5408/12-399.1 (2015)
  8. Johnson, B. R., C. J. Vourch, T. D. Drysdale, A. Kalman, S. Fujikawa, B. Keating, and J. Kaufman, A Cubesat for Calibrating Ground-Based and Sub-Orbital Millimeter-Wave Polarimeters (Calsat), Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation, 4, 1550007, doi:10.1142/S2251171715500075 (2015)
  9. Kramer, L.J. D. Helmig, J.F. Burkhart, A. Stohl, S. Oltmans, and R.E. Honrath, Seasonal variability of atmospheric nitrogen oxides and non-methane hydrocarbons at the GEOSummit station, Greenland, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6827-6849, doi:10.5194/acp-15-6827-2015 (2015)
  10. Matsushita, S., K. Asada, R. Blundell, C.-C. Chang, M.-T. Chen, P. Grimes, J. Han, et al., Greenland Telescope: Imaging Black Hole Shadow and Thz Astronomy, IAU General Assembly, Meeting #29, id.2251138 (2015)
  11. McLeod, J.T. and T.L. Mote, Assessing the role of precursor cyclones on the formation of extreme Greenland blocking episodes and their impact on summer melting across the Greenland ice sheet, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 12357–12377, doi:10.1002/2015JD023945 (2015)
  12. Miller N.B., M. D. Shupe, C.J. Cox, V. P. Walden, D. D. Turner, and K. Steffen, Cloud Radiative Forcing at Summit, Greenland, J. Climate, 28, 6267-6280, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0076.1 (2015)
  13. Murray, K.A., L.J. Kramer, P.V. Doskey, L. Ganzeveld, B. Seok, B. Van Dam, and D. Helmig, Dynamics of ozone and nitrogen oxides at Summit, Greenland. II. Simulating snowpack chemistry during a spring high ozone event with a 1-D process-scale model, Atmospheric Environment, 117, 110-123, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.07.004 (2015)
  14. Morris, E.M. and D.J. Wingham, Uncertainty in mass-balance trends derived from altimetry: a case study along the EGIG line, central Greenland, J. Glaciol., 61( 226), doi:10.3189/2015JoG14J123 (2015)
  15. Peterson, K., J. Cole-Dai, D. Brandis, T. Cox, and S. Splett, Rapid Measurement of Perchlorate in Polar Ice Cores Down to Sub-Ng L(−1) Levels without Pre-Concentration, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 407(26), 7965-7972, doi:10.1007/s00216-015-8965-y (2015)
  16. Ray, L., A. Adolph, A. Morlock, and B. Walker, Autonomous rover for polar science support and remote sensing, Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2014 IEEE International, doi:10.1109/IGARSS.2014.6947388 (2015)
  17. Van Dam, B., D. Helmig, C. Toro, P. Doskey, L. Kramer, K. Murray, L. Ganzeveld, and B. Seok, Dynamics of ozone and nitrogen oxides at Summit, Greenland: I. Multi-year observations in the snowpack, Atmospheric Environment, 123(A), 268–284, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.09.060 (2015)
  18. van der Wel, L.G., H.A. Been, R.S.W. van de Wal, C.J.P.P. Smeets, and H.A.J. Meijer, Constraints on the δ²H diffusion rate in firn from field measurements at Summit, Greenland, The Cryosphere, 9, 1089–1103, doi:10.5194/tc-9-1089-2015 (2015)
  19. Webster, K.B., J.R. White, and L.M. Pratt, Ground-level concentrations of atmospheric methane in southwest Greenland evaluated using open-path laser spectroscopy and cavity-enchanced absorption spectroscopy, Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research, 47(4), 599-609, doi:10.1657/AAAR0014-051 (2015)
  20. Wissel, S.A., J. Avva, K. Bechtol, C. Deaconu, and P. Gorham, Site Characterization and detector development for the Greenland Neutrino Observatory, Proceedings of Science, 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference, PoS(ICRC2015)1150 (2015)


  1. Adolf, A.C., and M.R. Albert, Gas diffusivity and permeability through the firn column at Summit, Greenland: measurements and comparison to microstructural properties, The Cryosphere, 8, 319-328, doi:10.5194/tc-8-319-2014 (2014)
  2. Bierman, P.R., L.B. Corbett, J.A. Graly, T.A. Neumann, A. Lini, B.T. Crosby, and D.H. Rood, Preservation of a preglacial landscape under the center of the Greenland ice sheet, Science, 344(6182), 402-405, doi:10.1126/science.1249047 (2014)
  3. Cox, C.J., V.P. Walden, G.P. Compo, P.M. Rowe, M.D. Shupe and K. Steffen, Downwelling longwave flux over Summit, Greenland, 2010-2012: Analysis of surface-based observations and evaluation of ERA-Interim using wavelets, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 12317-12337, doi:10.1002/2014JD021975 (2014)
  4. Cullen, N.J., T. Mölg, J. Conway and K. Steffen, Assessing the role of sublimation in the dry snow zone of the Greenland ice sheet in a warming world, J. Geophys. Res.:Atmos., 119, 6563-6577, doi:10.1002/2014JD021557 (2014)
  5. Duderstadt, K. A., J.E. Dibb, C.H. Jackman, C.E. Randall, S.C. Solomon, M.J. Mills, N.A. Schwandron, and H.E. Spence, Nitrate deposition to surface snow at Summit, Greenland, following the 9 November 2000 solar proton event, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 6938-6957, doi:10.1002/2013JD021389 (2014)
  6. Geng, L., B. Alexander, J. Cole-Dai, E.J. Steig, J. Savarinod, E.D. Sofena, A.J. Schauer, Nitrogen isotopes in ice core nitrate linked to anthropogenic atmospheric acidity change, PNAS, 111(16), 5808-5812, doi:10.1073/pnas.1319441111 (2014)
  7. Geng, L., J. Cole-Dai, B. Alexander, J. Erbland, J. Savarino, A.J. Schauer, E.J. Steig, P. Lin, Q. Fu, and M.C. Zatko, On the origin of the occasional spring nitrate peak in Greenland snow, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13361-13376, doi:10.5194/acp-14-13361-2014 (2014)
  8. Hakala, T., A. Riihela, P. Lahtinen, J.I. Peltoniemi, Hemispherical-directional reflectance factor measurements of snow on the Greeland Ice Sheet during the Radiation, Snow Characteristics and Albedo at Summit (RASCALS) campaign, J. Quant. Spectros. Rad. Trans., 146, 280-289, doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2014.04.010 (2014)
  9. Hanna, E., X. Fettweis, S.H. Mernild, J. Cappelen, M.H. Ribergaard, C.A. Shuman, K. Steffen, L. Wood and T.L. Mote, Atmospheric and oceanic climate forcing of the exceptional Greenland ice sheet surface melt in summer 2012, Int. J. Climat., 34, 1022-1037, doi:10.1002/joc.3743 (2014)
  10. Hawley, R.L., Z. Courville, L.M. Kehrl, E.R Lutz, E.C. Osterberg, T.B. Overly, G.J. Wong, Recent Accumulation Variability in Northwest Greenland from GPR and Shallow Cores Along the Greenland Inland Traverse, Journal of Glaciology, 60, (220), 365-372, doi: 10.3189/2014JoG13J141 (2014)
  11. Helmig, D., C.R. Stephens, J. Caramore, J. Hueber, Seasonal behavior of non-methane hydrocarbons in the firn air at Summit, Greenland, Atmos. Environ., 85, 234-246, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.11.021 (2014)
  12. Inoue, M. et al., Greenland telescope project: Direct confirmation of black hole with sub-millimeter VLBI, Radio Sci., 49, 564-571, doi:10.1002/2014RS005450 (2014)
  13. Kneifel, S., S. Redl, E. Orlandi, U. Loehnert, M.P. Cadeddu, D.D. Turner, and M.-T. Chen, Absorption properties of supercooled liquid water between 31 and 225 GHz: Evaluation of absorption models using ground-based observations, J. Appl. Met. Clim., 53, 1028-1045, doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-13-0214.1 (2014)
  14. Keegan, K., M. Albert, J. McConnell, and I. Baker, Climate change and forest fires synergistically drive widespread melt events of the Greenland Ice Sheet, PNAS, 111(22), 7964-7967, doi:10.1073/pnas.1405397111 (2014)
  15. Li C., S. Kang, G. Shi, J. Huang, M. Ding, Q. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Guo, C. Xiao, S. Hou, B. Sun, D. Qin, and J. Ren, Spatial and Temporal Variations of Total Mercury in Antarctic Snow Along the Transect from Zhongshan Station to Dome A, Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 66(1), doi:10.3402/tellusb.v66.25152 (2014)
  16. Leonard, M. K, J. LaFlamme, and G. Sodhi, Phase 1 Design Paper 2011 Skandic Tundra Lt Electric Vehicle (Ev) Conversion, SAE International Clean Snowmobile Challenge (2014)
  17. Neff, W., G. Compo, F. M. Ralph, and M. D. Shupe, Continental heat anomalies and the extreme melting of the Greenland ice surface in 2013 and 1889, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 6520-6536, doi:10.1002/2014JD021470 (2014)
  18. Van Tricht, K, IV Gorodetskaya, S Lhermitte, DD Turner, JH Schween, and NPM van Lipzig, An improved algorithm for polar cloud base detection by ceilometer over the ice sheets, Atmos. Meas. Technol., 7, 1153-1167, doi:10.5194/amt-7-1153-2014 (2014)
  19. Weale, J., L. Barna, W. Tobiasson, and J. Mercer, Elevated Building Lift Systems on Permanent Snowfields: A Report on the Elevated Building Lift Systems in Polar Environments Workshop, ERDC/CRREL Special Report 14-2 (2014)
  20. Wright, P., M. Bergin, J. Dibb, B. Lefer, F. Domine, T. Carman, C. Carmagnola, M. Dumont, Z. Courville, C. Schaaf, Z. Wang, Comparing MODIS daily snow albedo to spectral albedo field measurements in Central Greenland, Rem. Sens. Environ., 140, 118-129, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2013.08.044 (2014)


  1. Adolf, A., and M.R. Albert, An improved technique to measure firn diffusivity, Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer, 61, 598-604, doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2013.02.029 (2013)
  2. Bennartz, R., M. D. Shupe, D. D. Turner, V. P. Walden, K. Steffen, C. J. Cox, M. S. Kulie, N. B. Miller, and C. Pettersen, July 2012 Greenland melt extent enhanced by low-level liquid clouds, Nature, 496, 83-86, doi:10.1038/nature12002 (2013)
  3. Carmagnola, C.M., F. Domine, M. Dumont, P. Wright, B. Strellis, M. Bergin, J. Dibb, G. Picard, Q. Libois, L. Arnaud, and S. Morin, Snow spectral albedo at Summit, Greenland: measurements and numerical simulations based on physical and chemical properties of the snowpack, The Cryosphere, 7, 1139-1160, doi:10.5194/tc-7-1139-2013 (2013)
  4. Felix, J.D., and E.M. Elliot, The agricultural history of human-nitrogen interactions as recorded in ice core δ15N-NO3−, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1642-1646, doi:10.1002/grl.50209 (2013)
  5. Fibiger, D.L., M.G. Hastings, J. E. Dibb, and L. G. Huey, The preservation of atmospheric nitrate in snow at Summit, Greenland, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 3484-3489, doi:10.1002/grl.50659 (2013)
  6. Hullar, T., and C. Anastasio, Modeling the influence of photochemistry on hydrogen peroxide concentrations in an Arctic snowpack, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2694-2698, doi:10.1002/grl.50589 (2013)
  7. Lomonaco, R.W. and I. Baker, Characterization of Melt Layers in Firn at Summit, Greenland using Micro CT, Microscopy and Microanalysis, 19 (S2), 642-643, doi:10.1017/S1431927613005205 (2013)
  8. McGrath D., W. Colgan, N. Bayou, A. Muto, and K. Steffen, Recent warming at Summit, Greenland: Global context and implications, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2091-2096, doi:10.1002/grl.50456 (2013)
  9. Miller, N.B., D. D. Turner, R. Bennartz, M. D. Shupe, M. S. Kulie, M. P. Cadeddu, and V. P. Walden, Surface-based inversions above central Greenland, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 495-506, doi:10.1029/2012JD018867 (2013)
  10. Neely, R.R. III, M. Hayman, R. Stillwell, J.P. Thayer, R.M. Hardesty, M. O'Neill, M.D. Shupe, and C. Alvarez, Polarization Lidar at Summit, Greenland for the Detection of Cloud Phase and Particle Orientation, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-12-00101.1 (2013)
  11. Petrenko, V.V., P. Martinerie, P. Novelli, D.M. Etheridge, I. Levin, Z. Wang, T. Blunier, J. Chappellaz, J. Kaiser, P. Lang, L.P. Steele, S. Hammer, J. Mak, R.L. Langefelds, J. Schwander, J.P. Severinghaus, E. Witrant, G. Petron, M.O. Battle, G. Forster, W.T. Sturges, J.-F. Lamarque, K. Steffen, and J.W.C. White, A 60 yr record of atmospheric carbon monoxide reconstructed from Greenland firn air, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7567-7585, doi:10.5194/acp-13-7567-2013 (2013)
  12. Shupe, M. D., D. D. Turner, V. P. Walden, R. Bennartz, M. Cadeddu, B. Castellani, C. Cox, D. Hudak, M. Kulie, N. Miller, R. R. Neely III, W. Neff, and P. Rowe, High and Dry: New observations of tropospheric and cloud properties above the Greenland Ice Sheet, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94, 169-186, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00249.1 (2013)
  13. Wong, G.L., R.L. Hawley, E.R. Lutz, E.C. Osterberg, Trace-element and physical response to melt percolation in Summit (Greenland) snow, Ann. Glaciol., 54(63), doi:10.3189/2013AoG63A602 (2013)


  1. Bauguitte, S.J.-B., W.J. Bloss, M.J. Evans, R.A. Salmon, P.S. Anderson, A.E. Jones, J.D. Lee, A. Saiz-Lopez, H.K. Roscoe, E.W. Wolff, J.M.C. Plane, Summertime NOx measurements during the CHABLIS campaign: can source and sink estimates unravel observed diurnal cycles?, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 989-1002, doi:10.5194/acp-12-989-2012 (2012)
  2. Francesconi, K.A., Radical views on snow chemistry (editorial), Environ. Chem. 2012, 9, iii, doi:10.1071/ENv9n2_ED (2012)
  3. Hall, D.K., J.S. Comiso, N.E. DiGirolamo, C.A. Shuman, J.R. Key, and L.S. Koenig, A satellite-derived climate-quality data record of the clear-sky surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet, J. Climate, 25, 4785-4798, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00365.1 (2012)
  4. Hullar, T., K. Patten, and C. Anastasio, Formation of hydrogen peroxide from illuminated polar snows and frozen solutions of model compounds, Atoms. Environ., 55, 127-134, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.03.047 (2012)
  5. Kehrwald, N., R. Zangrando, P. Gabrielli, J.-L. Jaffrezo, C. Boutron, C. Barbante, and A. Gambaro, Levoglucosan as a specific marker of fire events in Greenland snow, Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 64(1), doi:10.3402/tellusb.v64i0.18196 (2012)
  6. Lanciki, A., J. Cole-Dai, M. H. Thiemens, and J. Savarino, Sulfur isotope evidence of little or no stratospheric impact by the 1783 Laki volcanic eruption, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L01806, doi:10.1029/2011GL050075 (2012)
  7. Ohmura, A., Present status and variations in the Arctic energy balance, Polar Science, doi:10.1016/j.polar.2012.03.003 (2012)
  8. Thomas, J.L., J.E. Dibb, L.G. Huey, J. Liao, D. Tanner, B. Lefer, R. von Glasow, and J. Stutz, Modeling chemistry in and above snow at Summit, Greenland – Part 2: Impact of snowpack chemistry on the oxidation capacity of the boundary layer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6537-6554, doi:10.5194/acp-12-6537-2012 (2012)
  9. Thomas, J.L., J.E. Dibb, J. Stutz, R. von Glasow, S. Brooks, L.G. Huey, and B. Lefer, Overview of the 2007 and 2008 campaigns conducted as part of the Greenland Summit Halogen-HOx Experiment (GSHOX), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 10833-10839, doi:10.5194/acp-12-10833-2012 (2012)
  10. VanDam, B., and D. Helmig, Comments on 'Possible contribution of triboelectricity to snow-air interactions,' Environ. Chemis., 9, 116-118 (2012)
  11. VanCuren, R.A., T.A. Cahill, J.F. Burkhart, D. Barnes, Y. Zhao, K.D. Perry, S.S. Cliff, and J. McConnell, Aerosols and their sources at Summit, Greenland - First results of continuous size- and time-resolved sampling, Atmos. Environ., 52, 82-97, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.10.047 (2012)
  12. Wolff, E.W., M. Bigler, M.A.J. Curran, J.E. Dibb, M.M. Frey, M. Legrand, and J.R. McConnell, The Carrington event not observed in most ice core nitrate records, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L08503, doi:10.1029/2012GL051603 (2012)


  1. Bocquet, F., D. Helmig, B.A. Van Dam, and C.W. Fairall, Evaluation of the flux gradient technique for measurement of ozone surface fluxes over snowpack at Summit, Greenland, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 2305-2321, doi:10.5194/amt-4-2305-2011 (2011)
  2. Brooks, S., C. Moore, D. Lew, B. Lefer, G. Huey, and D. Tanner, Temperature and sunlight controls of mercury oxidation and deposition atop the Greenland ice sheet, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 8295–8306, doi:10.5194/acp-11-8295-2011 (2011)
  3. Franco, B., X. Fettweis, M. Erpicum, and S. Nicolay, Present and future climates of the Greenland ice sheet according to the IPCC AR4 models, Climate Dynamics, 36, 1897–1918, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0779-1 (2011)
  4. Gillet-Chaulet, F., and R.C.A. Hindmarsh, Flow at ice‐divide triple junctions: 1. Three‐dimensional full‐Stokes modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 116, F02023, doi:10.1029/2009JF001611 (2011)
  5. Gillet-Chaulet, F., R.C.A. Hindmarsh, H.F.J. Corr, E.C. King, and A. Jenkins, In-situ quantification of ice rheology and direct measurement of the Raymond Effect at Summit, Greenland using a phase-sensitive radar, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L24503, doi:10.1029/2011GL049843 (2011)
  6. Haehnel, R.B., and M.A. Knuth, Potable Water Supply Feasibility Study for Summit Station, Greenland, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab, Hanover, NH, 55 p., Report No. ADA538084 (2011)
  7. Hawley, R.L., and E.D. Waddington, Instruments and Methods, In situ measurements of firn compaction profiles using borehole optical stratigraphy, J. Glaciol., 57(202), 289-294 (2011)
  8. Kobashi, T., K. Kawamura, J.P. Severinghaus, J.-M. Barnola, T. Nakaegawa, B. M. Vinther, S. J. Johnsen, and J.E. Box, High variability of Greenland surface temperatureover the past 4000 years estimated from trapped air in an ice core, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L21501, doi:10.1029/2011GL049444 (2011)
  9. Kuramoto, T., K. Goto-Azuma, M. Hirabayashi, T. Miyake, H. Motoyama, D. Dahel-Jensen, and J.P. Steffensen, Seasonal variations of snow chemistry at NEEM, Greenland, Ann. Glaciol., 52(58), 193-200, doi:10.3189/172756411797252365 (2011)
  10. Liao, J., L.G. Huey, D.J. Tanner, N. Brough, S. Brooks, J.E. Dibb, J. Stutz, J.L. Thomas, B. Lefer, C. Haman, and K. Gorham, Observations of hydroxyl and peroxy radicals and the impact of BrO at Summit, Greenland in 2007 and 2008, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 8577–8591, doi:10.5194/acp-11-8577-2011 (2011)
  11. Lomonaco, R., M. Albert, and I. Baker, Microstructural evolution of fine-grained layers through the firn column at Summit, Greenland, J. Glaciol., 57(204), 755-762, doi:10.3189/002214311797409730 (2011)
  12. Siegfried, M.R., R.L. Hawley, and J.F. Burkhart, High-resolution ground-based GPS measurements show intercampaign bias in ICESat elevation data near Summit, Greenland, IEEE Trans. Geo. Rem. Sens., 49(9), 3393-3400, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2011.2127483 (2011)
  13. Stutz, J., J.L. Thomas, S.C. Hurlock, M. Schneider, R. von Glasow, M. Piot, K. Gorham, J.F. Burkhart, L. Ziemba, J.E. Dibb, and B.L. Lefer, Longpath DOAS observations of surface BrO at Summit, Greenland, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9899-9910, doi:10.5194/acp-11-9899-2011 (2011)
  14. Thomas, J.L., J. Stutz, B. Lefer, L.G. Huey, K. Toyota, J.E. Dibb, and R. von Glasow, Modeling chemistry in and above snow at Summit, Greenland - Part 1: Model description and results, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4899-4914, doi:10.5194/acp-11-4899-2011 (2011)
  15. Toro, C., Nitrogen oxides in the firn air at Summit, Greenland, Thesis (M.S.) Michigan Technological University, 97 p, 2011.


  1. Carlson, A. E., What Caused the Younger Dryas Cold Event?, Geology, 38(4), 383-384, doi:10.1130/focus042010.1 (2010)
  2. Gorbarenko, S. A., N. Harada, M. I. Malakhov, Y. P. Vasilenko, A. A. Bosin, and E. L. Goldberg, Orbital and millennial-scale environmental and sedimentological changes in the Okhotsk Sea during the last 350 kyr, Global and Planetary Change, Global and Planetary Change, 72, 79-85, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2010.03.002 (2010)
  3. Hirdman, D, H Sodemann, S Eckhardt, J Burkhart, A. Jefferson, T. Mefford, P Quinn, S Sharma, J Strom and A Stohl, Source identification of short-lived air pollutants in the Arctic using statistical analysis of measurement data and particle dispersion model output, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, 669-693, doi:10.5194/acp-10-669-2010 (2010)
  4. Kahan, T. F., R. Zhao, K. B. Jumaa, and D. Donaldson, Anthracene Photolysis in Aqueous Solution and Ice: Photon Flux Dependence and Comparison of Kinetics in Bulk Ice and at the Air-Ice Interface, Environmental Science & Technology, 133-148, doi:10.1021/es9031612 (2010)
  5. Melott A.L., B.C. Thomas, G. Dreschhoff, and C.K. Johnson, Cometary airbursts and atmospheric chemistry: Tunguska and a candidate Younger Dryas event, Geology, 38(4), 355–358, doi:10.1130/G30508.1 (2010)
  6. Paden, J., T. Akins, D. Dunson, C. Allen, and P. Gogineni, Ice-sheet bed 3-D tomography, Journal of Glaciology, 56(195), 3-11, doi:10.3189/002214310791190811 (2010)
  7. Walker, J. T., C. A. Stow, and C. Geron, Nitrous Oxide Emissions from the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone, Environmental Science & Technology, 320-329, doi:10.1021/es902058t (2010)
  8. Wieczorek, U., Milankovic's theory: multidimensional visualisation of the change of insolation and indicators of climatic change from 100000 before present to 100000 after present (in intervals of 1,000 years), International Journal of Earth Sciences, 99(1), 201-205, doi:10.1007/s00531-008-0377-1 (2010)
  9. Ziemba, L. D., J. E. Dibb, R. J. Griffin, L. G. Huey, and P. Beckman, Observations of particle growth at a remote, Arctic site, Atmospheric Environment, 44(13), 1649-1657, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.01.032 (2010)


  1. Anastasio, C., and L. Chu, Photochemistry of nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrous acidium ion (H2ONO) in aqueous solution and ice, Environmental Science and Technology, 43(4), 1108-1114, doi:10.1021/es802579a (2009)
  2. Bakke, J., Ø. Lie, E. Heegaard, T. Dokken, G. H. Haug, H. H. Birks, P. Dulski, and T. Nilsen, Rapid oceanic and atmospheric changes during the Younger Dryas cold period, Nature Geoscience, 2(3), 202-205, doi:10.1038/ngeo439 (2009)
  3. Bales, R. C., Q. Guo, D. Shen, J. R. McConnell, G. Du, J. F. Burkhart, V. B. Spikes, E. Hanna, and J. Cappelen, Annual accumulation for Greenland updated using ice core data developed during 2000–2006 and analysis of daily coastal meteorological data, Journal of Geophysical Research, 114(D6), D06116, doi:10.1029/2008JD011208 (2009)
  4. Bernhard, G., C. R. Booth, J. C. Ehramjian, and V. V. Quang, Dissemination of data from the National Science Foundation's UV monitoring network, Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, 7462, 7 (2009)
  5. Burkhart, J. F., R. C. Bales, J. R. McConnell, M. A. Hutterli, and M. M. Frey, Geographic variability of nitrate deposition and preservation over the Greenland Ice Sheet, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D06301, doi:10.1029/2008JD010600 (2009)
  6. Darby, L. S., International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA): An overview of International Polar Year activities, 10th Conference on Polar Meteorology and Oceanography, 10.8 (2009)
  7. Faïn, X., C. P. Ferrari, A. Dommergue, M. R. Albert, M. Battle, J. Severinghaus, L. Arnaud, J. M. Barnola, W. Cairns, and C. Barbante, Polar firn air reveals large-scale impact of anthropogenic mercury emissions during the 1970s, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(38), 16114-16119, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0905117106 (2009)
  8. Frey, M., M. Hutterli, G. Chen, S. Sjostedt, J. Burkhart, D. Friel, and R. Bales, Contrasting atmospheric boundary layer chemistry of methylhydroperoxide (CH3OOH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) above polar snow, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9, 3261-3276, doi:10.5194/acp-9-3261-2009 (2009)
  9. Frey, M., J. Savarino, S. Morin, J. Erbland, and J. Martins, Photolysis imprint in the nitrate stable isotope signal in snow and atmosphere of East Antarctica and implications for reactive nitrogen cycling, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9, 8681-8696, doi:10.5194/acp-9-8681-2009 (2009)
  10. Galbavy, E. S., K. Ram, and C. Anastasio, 2-Nitrobenzaldehyde as a chemical actinometer for solution and ice photochemistry, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 209(2-3), 186-192, doi:10.1016/j.jphotochem.2009.11.013 (2009)
  11. Gorham, K.A., Characterization of halogen atom chemistry in the remote inland, sea-ice covered, and coastal Arctic, Doctoral Thesis, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA, 166 p. (2009)
  12. Hastings, M.G., J.C. Jarvis, and E.J. Steig, Anthropogenic impacts on nitrogen isotopes of ice-core nitrate, Science, 324(5932), 1288, doi:10.1126/science.1170510 (2009)
  13. Helmig, D., L. D. Cohen, F. Bocquet, S. Oltmans, A. Grachev, and W. Neff, Spring and summertime diurnal surface ozone fluxes over the polar snow at Summit, Greenland, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L08809, doi:10.1029/2008GL036549 (2009)
  14. Jarvis, J. C., M. G. Hastings, E. J. Steig, and S. A. Kunasek, Isotopic ratios in gas-phase HNO3 and snow nitrate at Summit, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D17301, doi:10.1029/2009JD012134 (2009)
  15. Kepko, L., H. Spence, D. Smart, and M. Shea, Interhemispheric observations of impulsive nitrate enhancements associated with the four large ground-level solar cosmic ray events (1940-1950), Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 71(17-18), 1840-1845, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2009.07.002 (2009)
  16. Kuipers Munneke, P., M. van den Broeke, C. Reijmer, M. Helsen, W. Boot, M. Schneebeli, and K. Steffen, The role of radiation penetration in the energy budget of the snowpack at Summit, Greenland, The Cryosphere, 3, 155-165, doi:10.5194/tc-3-155-2009 (2009)
  17. Kuipers Munneke, P., Snow, ice and solar radiation, Doctoral Thesis, University Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands (2009)
  18. Kunasek, S. A., Advances in reconstructing past atmospheric oxidation chemistry using the oxygen isotope composition of nitrate and sulfate in ice cores, Doctoral Thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA, 149 p. (2009)
  19. LeGrande, A.N., and G.A. Schmidt, Sources of Holocene variability of oxygen isotopes in paleoclimate archives, Climate of the Past, 5, 441-455, doi:10.5194/cp-5-441-2009 (2009)
  20. Liang, D., P. Xu, L. Tsang, Z. Gui, and K. Chen, Electromagnetic scattering by rough surfaces with large heights and slopes with applications to microwave remote sensing of rough surface over layered media, Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 95, 199-218, doi:10.2528/PIER09071413 (2009)
  21. Lomonaco, R., S. Chen, and I. Baker, Characterization of porous snow with SEM and micro CT, Microscopy and Microanalysis, 15(S2), 1110-1111, doi:10.1017/S1431927609093313 (2009)
  22. Newton, A., Abnormal nitrogen, Nature Reports Climate Change, doi:10.1038/climate.2009.55 (2009)
  23. Price, P.B., R.A. Rohde, and R.C. Bay, Fluxes of microbes, organic aerosols, dust, sea-salt Na ions, non-sea-salt Ca ions, and methanesulfonate onto Greenland and Antarctic ice, Biogeosciences, 6, 479-486, doi:10.5194/bg-6-479-2009 (2009)
  24. Ram, K. and C. Anastasio, Photochemistry of phenanthrene, pyrene, and fluoranthene in ice and snow, Atmospheric Environment, 43(14), 2252-2259, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.01.044 (2009)
  25. Sakurai, T., Y. Iizuka, S. Horikawa, S. Johnsen, D. Dahl-Jensen, J. P. Steffensen, and T. Hondoh, Direct observation of salts as micro-inclusions in the Greenland GRIP ice core, Journal of Glaciology, 55(193), 777-783, doi:10.3189/002214309790152483 (2009)
  26. Vinther, B., S. Buchardt, H. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, S. Johnsen, D. Fisher, R. Koerner, D. Raynaud, V. Lipenkov, and K. Andersen, Holocene thinning of the Greenland ice sheet, Nature, 461(7262), 385-388, doi:10.1038/nature08355 (2009)
  27. Vinther, B., P. Jones, K. Briffa, H. Clausen, K. Andersen, D. Dahl-Jensen, and S. Johnsen, Climatic signals in multiple highly resolved stable isotope records from Greenland, Quaternary Science Reviews, 29(3-4), 522-538, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.11.002 (2009)
  28. von Schneidemesser, E., Concentration, sources, and degradation of organic aerosol at Summit, Greenland, Doctoral Thesis, The University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, 171 p. (2009)
  29. von Schneidemesser, E., J. J. Schauer, G. S. W. Hagler, and M. H. Bergin, Concentrations and sources of carbonaceous aerosol in the atmosphere of Summit, Greenland, Atmospheric Environment, 43(27), 4155-4162, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.05.043 (2009)
  30. Wang, X. and C. S. Zender, MODIS snow albedo bias at high solar zenith angles relative to theory and to in situ observations in Greenland, Remote Sensing of Environment, 114(3), 563-575, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2009.10.014 (2009)
  31. White, J. W. C., L. Barlow, D. Fisher, P. M. Grootes, J. Jouzel, S. J. Johnsen, M. Stuiver, and H. B. Clausen, Stable isotope stacks from GRIP and GISP ice cores, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.716878, (2009) Supplement to: E.J. Steig, P.M. Grootes, M. Stuiver, Seasonal precipitation timing and ice core records, Science, 266(5192), 1885-1886, doi:10.1126/science.266.5192.1885 (1994)
  32. Wiseman W.J. Jr., Jeffries, M.O. , Pautzke, C. and Wiese F., Two US programs during IPY, in Influence of Climate Change on the Changing Arctic and Sub-Arctic Conditions, edited Nihoul J.C.J., A.G. Kostianoy, 221-232, doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-9460-6 (2009)


  1. Allen, C., J. Paden, D. Dunson and P. Gogineni, Ground-based multi-channel synthetic-aperture radar for mapping the ice-bed interface, In Proceedings of the IEEE Radar Conference, 26–30 May 2008, Rome, Italy. Piscataway, NJ, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1428–1433, doi:10.1109/RADAR.2008.4720992 (2008)
  2. Anderson, C., J.E. Dibb, R.J. Griffin, and M.H. Bergin, Simultaneous measurements of particulate and gas-phase water-soluble organic carbon concentrations at remote and urban-influenced locations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L13706, doi:10.1029/2008GL033966 (2008)
  3. Anderson, C. H., J. E. Dibb, R. J. Griffin, G. S. W. Hagler, and M. H. Bergin, Atmospheric water-soluble organic carbon measurements at Summit, Greenland, Atmospheric Environment, 42(22), 5612-5621, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.03.006 (2008)
  4. Anderson, P. and W. Neff, Boundary layer physics over snow and ice, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 3563-3582, doi:10.5194/acp-8-3563-2008 (2008)
  5. Beine, H., A. J. Colussi, A. Amoroso, G. Esposito, M. Montagnoli, and M. R. Hoffmann, HONO emissions from snow surfaces, Environmental Research Letters, 3, 045005, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/3/4/045005 (2008)
  6. Bernhard, G., C. Booth, and J. Ehramjian, Comparison of UV irradiance measurements at Summit, Greenland; Barrow, Alaska; and South Pole, Antarctica, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 4799-4810, doi:10.5194/acp-8-4799-2008 (2008)
  7. Boes, X., and N. Fagel, Timing of the late glacial and Younger Dryas cold reversal in southern Chile varved sediments, Journal of Paleolimnology, 39(2), 267-281, doi:10.1007/s10933-007-9118-x (2008)
  8. Boxe, C.S. and A. Saiz-Lopez, Multiphase modeling of nitrate photochemistry in the quasi-liquid layer (QLL): implications for NOx release from the Arctic and coastal Antarctic snowpack, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 4855-4864, doi:10.5194/acp-8-4855-2008 (2008)
  9. Calder, C.A., P.F. Craigmile, and E. Mosley-Thompson, Spatial variation in the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on precipitation across Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D06112, doi:10.1029/2007JD009227 (2008)
  10. Carlson, A. E., D. W. Oppo, R. E. Came, A. N. LeGrande, L. D. Keigwin, and W. B. Curry, Subtropical Atlantic salinity variability and Atlantic meridional circulation during the last deglaciation, Geology, 36(12), 991-994, doi:10.1130/G25080A.1 (2008)
  11. Carlson, A. E., J. S. Stoner, J. P. Donnelly, and C. Hillaire-Marcel, Response of the southern Greenland Ice Sheet during the last two deglaciations, Geology, 36(5), 359-362, doi:10.1130/G24519A.1 (2008)
  12. Dadic, R., M. Schneebeli, M. Lehning, M.A. Hutterli, and A. Ohmura (2008), Impact of the microstructure of snow on its temperature: A model validation with measurements from Summit, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D14303, doi:10.1029/2007JD009562 (2008)
  13. Darby, L., J. Burkhart, E. Dlugokencky, J. Drummond, P. Fogal, A. Makshtas, V. Martyschenko, R. Schnell, T. Uttal, and B. Vasel, International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA): Recent and planned observatory upgrades in Canada, Greenland, Russia and the United States (2008)
  14. Faïn, X., C.P. Ferrari, A. Dommergue, M.R. Albert, M. Battle, L. Arnaud, J.M. Barnola, W. Cairns, C. Barbante, and C. Boutron, Mercury in the snow and firn at Summit Station, Central Greenland, and implications for the study of past atmospheric mercury levels, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 3441-3457, doi:10.5194/acp-8-3441-2008 (2008)
  15. Fisher, D., E. Osterberg, A. Dyke, D. Dahl-Jensen, M. Demuth, C. Zdanowicz, J. Bourgeois, R. M. Koerner, P. Mayewski, and C. Wake, The Mt Logan Holocene–late Wisconsinan isotope record: tropical Pacific–Yukon connections, The Holocene, 18(5), 667-677, doi:10.1177/0959683608092236 (2008)
  16. Gabrielli, P., C. Barbante, J. Plane, C. F. Boutron, J. L. Jaffrezo, T. A. Mather, B. Stenni, V. Gaspari, G. Cozzi, and C. Ferrari, Siderophile metal fallout to Greenland from the 1991 winter eruption of Hekla (Iceland) and during the global atmospheric perturbation of Pinatubo, Chemical Geology, 255(1-2), 78-86, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2008.06.012 (2008)
  17. Hager, S., T. Gerlach, and P. Wallace, Summit CO2 emission rates by the CO2/SO2 ratio method at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, during a period of sustained inflation, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 177(4), 875-882, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.06.033 (2008)
  18. Hagler, G.S.W., M.H. Bergin, E.A. Smith, M. Town, and J.E. Dibb, Local anthropogenic impact on particulate elemental carbon concentrations at Summit, Greenland, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 2485-2491, doi:10.5194/acp-8-2485-2008 (2008)
  19. Hall, D. K., J. E. Box, K. A. Casey, S. J. Hook, C. A. Shuman, and K. Steffen, Comparison of satellite-derived and in-situ observations of ice and snow surface temperatures over Greenland, Remote Sensing of Environment, 112(10), 3739-3749, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2008.05.007 (2008)
  20. Hanna, E., P. Huybrechts, K. Steffen, J. Cappelen, R. Huff, C. Shuman, T. Irvine-Fynn, S. Wise, and M. Griffiths, Increased runoff from melt from the Greenland Ice Sheet: a response to global warming, Journal of Climate, 21(2), 331-341, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI1964.1 (2008)
  21. Hawley, R.L., E.M. Morris, J.R. McConnell, Instruments and methods; rapid techniques for determining annual accumulation applied at Summit, Greenland, Journal of Glaciology, 54(188), 839-845 (2008)
  22. Helmig, D., B. Johnson, S. J. Oltmans, W. Neff, F. Eisele, and D. D. Davis, Elevated ozone in the boundary layer at South Pole, Atmospheric Environment, 42(12), 2788-2803, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.12.032 (2008)
  23. Helmig, D., B. J. Johnson, M. Warshawsky, T. Morse, W. D. Neff, F. Eisele, and D. D. Davis, Nitric oxide in the boundary-layer at South Pole during the Antarctic Tropospheric Chemistry Investigation (ANTCI), Atmospheric Environment, 42(12), 2817-2830, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.03.061 (2008)
  24. Hines, K. M. and D. H. Bromwich, Development and testing of Polar WRF. Part I. Greenland ice sheet meteorology, Monthly Weather Review, 136, 1971-1989, doi:10.1175/2007MWR2112.1 (2008)
  25. Hofton, M. A., J. B. Blair, S. B. Luthcke, and D. L. Rabine, Assessing the performance of 20–25 m footprint waveform lidar data collected in ICESat data corridors in Greenland, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L24501, doi:10.1029/2008GL035774 (2008)
  26. Jarvis, J. C., E. J. Steig, M. G. Hastings, and S. A. Kunasek, Influence of local photochemistry on isotopes of nitrate in Greenland snow, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L21804, doi:10.1029/2008GL035551 (2008)
  27. Jarvis, J.C., Isotopic studies of ice core nitrate and atmospheric nitrogen oxides in polar regions, Doctoral Thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA, 134 p. (2008)
  28. Jimi, S. I., K. J. R. Rosman, S. Hong, J. P. Candelone, L. J. Burn, and C. F. Boutron, Simultaneous determination of picogram per gram concentrations of Ba, Pb and Pb isotopes in Greenland ice by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 390(2), 495-501, doi:10.1007/s00216-007-1729-6 (2008)
  29. Kepko, L., H. Spence, M.A. Shea, D.F. Smart, and G.A.M. Dreschhoff, Observations of Impulsive Nitrate Enhancements Associated With Ground-Level Cosmic Ray Events 1-4 (1942-1949), Proceedings of the 30th International Cosmic Ray Conference. July 3 - 11, 2007, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico. Edited by Rogelio Caballero, Juan Carlos D'Olivo, Gustavo Medina-Tanco, Lukas Nellen, Federico A. Sánchez, José F. Valdés-Galicia. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico, 1, 729-732 (2008)
  30. Kleffmann, J. and P. Wiesen, Technical Note: Quantification of interferences of wet chemical HONO measurements under simulated polar conditions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 6813-6822, doi:10.5194/acp-8-6813-2008 (2008)
  31. Kobashi, T., J. P. Severinghaus, and J. M. Barnola, 4±1.5° C abrupt warming 11,270 yr ago identified from trapped air in Greenland ice, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 268(3-4), 397-407, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2008.01.032 (2008)
  32. Kunasek, S.A., B. Alexander, E.J. Steig, M.G. Hastings, D.J Gleason, and J. C. Jarvis, Measurements and modeling of Δ17O of nitrate in snowpits from Summit, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D24302, doi:10.1029/2008JD010103 (2008)
  33. LeGrande, A. N. and G. A. Schmidt, Ensemble, water isotope–enabled, coupled general circulation modeling insights into the 8.2 ka event, Paleoceanography, 23, PA3207, doi:10.1029/2008PA001610 (2008)
  34. Lever, J.H. and L.E. Ray, Revised solar-power budget for Cool Robot polar science campaigns, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 52(2,) 177-190, doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2007.02.009 (2008)
  35. Li, L., P. Gaiser, M. Albert, D. Long, and E. Twarog, WindSat passive microwave polarimetric signatures of the Greenland ice sheet, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 46(9), 2622-2631, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2008.917727 (2008)
  36. Mann, J.L., C.A. Shuman, W.R. Kelly, and K.J. Kreutz, Seasonal delta 34S variations in two high elevation snow pits measured by 33S-36S double spike thermal ionization mass spectrometry, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 72(15), 3907-3927, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2008.05.036 (2008)
  37. Medvedev, S., E.H. Hartz, and Y.Y Podladchikov, Vertical motions of the fjord regions of central East Greenland; impact of glacial erosion, deposition, and isostasy, Geology (Boulder), 36(7), 539-542, doi:10.1130/G24638A.1 (2008)
  38. Muscheler, R., B. Kromer, S. Björck, A. Svensson, M. Friedrich, K. Kaiser, and J. Southon, Tree rings and ice cores reveal 14C calibration uncertainties during the Younger Dryas, Nature Geoscience, 1(4), 263-267, doi:10.1038/ngeo128 (2008)
  39. Quinn, P.K, T.S. Bates, E. Baum, N. Doubleday, A.M. Fiore, M. Flanner, A. Fridlind, T.J. Garrett, D. Koch, S. Menon, D. Shindell, A. Stohl, and S.G. Warren, Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 1723-1735, doi:10.5194/acp-8-1723-2008 (2008)
  40. Rasmussen, S., I. Seierstad, K. Andersen, M. Bigler, D. Dahl-Jensen, and S. Johnsen, Synchronization of the NGRIP, GRIP, and GISP2 ice cores across MIS 2 and palaeoclimatic implications, Quaternary Science Reviews, 27(1-2), 18-28, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2007.01.016 (2008)
  41. Salmon, R., S. J. B. Bauguitte, W. Bloss, M. Hutterli, A. Jones, K. Read, and E. Wolff, Measurement and interpretation of gas phase formaldehyde concentrations obtained during the CHABLIS campaign in coastal Antarctica, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 4085-4093, doi:10.5194/acp-8-4085-2008 (2008)
  42. Smart, D., M. Shea, G. Dreschhoff, and K. McCracken, Solar proton fluence for 31 solar cycles derived from nitrate enhancements in polar ice, Proceedings of the 30th International Cosmic Ray Conference. July 3 - 11, 2007, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico. Edited by Rogelio Caballero, Juan Carlos D'Olivo, Gustavo Medina-Tanco, Lukas Nellen, Federico A. Sánchez, José F. Valdés-Galicia. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico, 1, 725-728 (2008)
  43. Sodemann, H., C. Schwierz, and H. Wernli, Interannual variability of Greenland winter precipitation sources: Lagrangian moisture diagnostic and North Atlantic Oscillation influence, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D03107, doi:10.1029/2007JD008503 (2008)
  44. Suwa, M., and M.L. Bender, O2/N2 ratios of occluded air in the GISP2 ice core, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D11119, doi:10.1029/2007JD009589 (2008)
  45. Svensson, A., K. Andersen, M. Bigler, H. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, S. Davies, S. Johnsen, R. Muscheler, F. Parrenin, and S. Rasmussen, A 60,000 year Greenland stratigraphic ice core chronology, Climate of the Past, 4(1), 47-57, doi:10.5194/cp-4-47-2008 (2008)
  46. Thomas, E. R., R. Mulvaney, and E. W. Wolff, A change in seasonality in Greenland during a Dansgaard-Oeschger warming, Annals of Glaciology, 48(1), 19-24 (2008)
  47. Town, M. S., S. G. Warren, V. P. Walden, and E. D. Waddington, Effect of atmospheric water vapor on modification of stable isotopes in near-surface snow on ice sheets, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D24303, doi:10.1029/2008JD009852 (2008)
  48. Wei, L., Statistical analysis of the atmospheric sulfate history recorded in Greenland ice cores, Doctoral Thesis, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA, 184 p. (2008)
  49. Wei, L., E. Mosley-Thompson, P. Gabrielli, L. G. Thompson, and C. Barbante, Synchronous deposition of volcanic ash and sulfate aerosols over Greenland in 1783 from the Laki eruption (Iceland), Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L16501, doi:10.1029/2008GL035117 (2008)
  50. Weninger, B. and O. Jöris, A 14C age calibration curve for the last 60 ka: the Greenland-Hulu U/Th timescale and its impact on understanding the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Western Eurasia, Journal of Human Evolution, 55(5), 772-781, doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.08.017 (2008)
  51. Yasuhara, M., T.M. Cronin, P.B. deMenocal, H. Okahashi, and B.K. Linsley, Abrupt climate change and collapse of deep-sea ecosystems, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(5), 1556-1560, doi:10.1073/pnas.0705486105 (2008)
  52. Zykina, V. and V. Zykin, The loess-soil sequence of the Brunhes chron from West Siberia and its correlation to global and climate records, Quaternary International, 179(1), 171-175, doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2007.10.010 (2008)


  1. Albert M., Impact of seasonality on snow permeability and microstructure at Summit, Greenland, Geophysical Research Abstracts, 9, 11266 (2007)
  2. Allen C., and J. Paden, Synthetic-aperture radar images polar ice-sheet bed, SPIE Newsroom (2007)
  3. Anastasio C., E.S. Galbavy, M.A. Hutterli, J.F. Burkhart, and D.K. Friel, Photoformation of hydroxyl radical on snow grains at Summit, Greenland, Atmospheric Environment, 41(24), 5110-5121, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.12.011 (2007)
  4. Anastasio, C., and T. Robles, Light absorption by soluble chemical species in Arctic and Antarctic snow, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D24304, doi:10.1029/2007JD008695 (2007)
  5. Anderson, C.H., Measurements of gas-phase and particle-phase water-soluble organic carbon (Water-soluble organic carbon), Master's Thesis, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, (2007)
  6. Aydin, M., M. B. Williams, and E. S. Saltzman, Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D07312, doi:10.1029/2006JD008027 (2007)
  7. Baker, I., Obbard, R., Iliescu, D. and Meese, D., Microstructural characterization of firn, Hydrol. Process., 21: 1624–1629. doi:10.1002/hyp.6725 (2007)
  8. Bales, R., Baseline measurements and results from the Greenland Summit Environmental Observatory, Geophysical Research Abstracts, vol. 9, p. 09984, (2007)
  9. Banta, J. R., and J. R. McConnell, Annual accumulation over recent centuries at four sites in central Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10114, doi:10.1029/2006JD007887 (2007)
  10. Barker, S., and G. Knorr, Antarctic climate signature in the Greenland ice core record, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(44), 17278-17282, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0708494104 (2007)
  11. Beniston, M., Entering into the" greenhouse century": Recent record temperatures in Switzerland are comparable to the upper temperature quantiles in a greenhouse climate, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L16710, doi:10.1029/2007GL030144 (2007)
  12. Bentley, C.R., and B.R. Koci, Drilling to the beds of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets; a review, Ann. Glaciol., 47, 1-9, doi:10.3189/172756407786857695 (2007)
  13. Beyersdorf, A.J., Trace gas species in polar atmospheres; ambient and firn measurements, Doctoral Thesis, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA, 180 p. (2007)
  14. Beyersdorf, A.J., N.J. Blake, A.L. Swanson, S.M. Meinardi, J.E. Jack, S. Sjostedt, G. Huey, B. Lefer, F.S. Rowland, and D.R. Blake, Hydroxyl concentration estimates in the sunlit snowpack at Summit, Greenland, Atmospheric Environment, 41(24), 5101-5109, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.08.058 (2007)
  15. Bloss, W., J. Lee, D. Heard, R. Salmon, S. Bauguitte, H. Roscoe, and A. Jones, Observations of OH and HO2 radicals in coastal Antarctica, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 4171–4185, doi:10.5194/acp-7-4171-2007 (2007)
  16. Blunier, T., R. Spahni, J. Barnola, J. Chappellaz, L. Loulergue, and J. Schwander, Synchronization of ice core records via atmospheric gases, Clim. Past, 3, 325-330, doi:10.5194/cp-3-325-2007 (2007)
  17. Bocquet, F., Surface layer ozone dynamics and air-snow interactions at Summit, Greenland, Doctoral Thesis, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA, 245 p., (2007)
  18. Burton, G. R., K. J. R. Rosman, J. P. Candelone, L. J. Burn, C. F. Boutron, and S. Hong, The impact of climatic conditions on Pb and Sr isotopic ratios found in Greenland ice, 7-150 ky BP, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 259(3-4), 557-566, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007.05.015 (2007)
  19. Cathles, L.M., IV, L.M. Cathles, III, and M.R. Albert, A physically based method for correcting temperature profile measurements made using thermocouples, J. Glaciol., 53(181), 298-304, doi:10.3189/172756507782202892 (2007)
  20. Chen, G., L. Huey, J. Crawford, J. Olson, M. Hutterli, S. Sjostedt, D. Tanner, J. Dibb, B. Lefer, and N. Blake, An assessment of the polar HOx photochemical budget based on 2003 Summit Greenland field observations, Atmos. Environ., 41(36), 7806-7820, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.06.014 (2007)
  21. Chu, L., and C. Anastasio, Temperature and wavelength dependence of nitrite photolysis in frozen and aqueous solutions, Environmental Science and Technology, 41(10), 3626-3632, doi:10.1021/es062731q (2007)
  22. Chylek, P., M. McCabe, M. K. Dubey, and J. Dozier, Remote sensing of Greenland ice sheet using multispectral near-infrared and visible radiances, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D24S20, doi:10.1029/2007JD008742 (2007)
  23. Cohen, L., D. Helmig, W. D. Neff, A. A. Grachev, and C. W. Fairall, Boundary-layer dynamics and its influence on atmospheric chemistry at Summit, Greenland, Atmospheric Environment, 41(24), 5044-5060, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.06.068 (2007)
  24. Courville, Z.R., Gas diffusivity and gas permeability of the firn from cold polar sites, Doctoral Thesis, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, 197 p., (2007)
  25. Cullen, N. J., K. Steffen, and P. D. Blanken, Nonstationarity of turbulent heat fluxes at Summit, Greenland, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 122(2), 439-455, doi:10.1007/s10546-006-9112-2 (2007)
  26. Dawson, A.G., K. Hickey, P.A. Mayewski, and A. Nesje, Greenland (GISP2) ice core and historical indicators of complex North Atlantic climate changes during the fourteenth century, The Holocene, 17(4), 427-434, doi:10.1177/0959683607077010 (2007)
  27. Dibb, J. E., Vertical mixing above Summit, Greenland: Insights into seasonal and high frequency variability from the radionuclide tracers 7Be and 210Pb, Atmos. Environ., 41(24), 5020-5030, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.12.005 (2007)
  28. Dibb, J. E., M. Albert, C. Anastasio, E. Atlas, A. J. Beyersdorf, N. J. Blake, D. R. Blake, F. Bocquet, J. F. Burkhart, G. Chen, L. Cohen, T. J. Conway, Z. Courville, M. M. Frey, D. K. Friel, E. S. Galbavy, S. Hall, M. G. Hastings, D. Helmig, L. G. Huey, M. A. Hutterli, J. C. Jarvis, B. L. Lefer, S. Meinardi, W. Neff, S. J. Oltmans, F. S. Rowland, S. J. Sjostedt, E. J. Steig, A. L. Swanson, and D. J. Tanner, An overview of air-snow exchange at Summit, Greenland: Recent experiments and findings, Atmos. Environ., 41(24), 4995-5006, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.12.006 (2007)
  29. Dibb, J. E., S. I. Whitlow, and M. Arsenault, Seasonal variations in the soluble ion content of snow at Summit. Greenland: Constraints from three years of daily surface snow samples, Atmos. Environ., 41(24), 5007-5019, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.12.010 (2007)
  30. Ding, X., X. M. Wang, Z. Q. Xie, C. H. Xiang, B. X. Mai, L. G. Sun, M. Zheng, G. Y. Sheng, J. M. Fu, and U. Pöschl, Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons observed over the North Pacific Ocean and the Arctic area: Spatial distribution and source identification, Atmos. Environ., 41(10), 2061-2072, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.11.002 (2007)
  31. Drüe, C. and G. Heinemann, Characteristics of intermittent turbulence in the upper stable boundary layer over Greenland, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 124(3), 361-381, doi:10.1007/s10546-007-9175-8 (2007)
  32. France, J., M. King, and J. Lee-Taylor, Hydroxyl (OH) radical production rates in snowpacks from photolysis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrate (NO3), Atmospheric Environment, 41(26), 5502-5509, doi;10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.03.056 (2007)
  33. Galbavy, E. S., C. Anastasio, B. L. Lefer, and S. R. Hall, Light penetration in the snowpack at Summit, Greenland: Part 1: Nitrite and hydrogen peroxide photolysis, Atmospheric Environment, 41(24), 5077-5090, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.04.072 (2007)
  34. Galbavy, E. S., C. Anastasio, B. L. Lefer, and S. R. Hall, Light penetration in the snowpack at Summit, Greenland: Part 2 Nitrate photolysis, Atmospheric Environment, 41(24), 5091-5100, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.01.066 (2007)
  35. Gogineni, S., D. Braaten, C. Allen, J. Paden, T. Akins, P. Kanagaratnam, K. Jezek, G. Prescott, G. Jayaraman, and V. Ramasami, Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM), Remote Sensing of Environment, 111(2-3), 204-211, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2007.01.022 (2007)
  36. Grachev, A. M., E. J. Brook, and J. P. Severinghaus, Abrupt changes in atmospheric methane at the MIS 5b–5a transition, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L20703, doi:10.1029/2007GL029799 (2007)
  37. Grannas, A. M., A. E. Jones, J. Dibb, M. Ammann, C. Anastasio, H. J. Beine, M. Bergin, J. Bottenheim, C. S. Boxe, G. Carver, G. Chen, J. H. Crawford, F. Domine, M. M. Frey, M. I. Guzman, D. E. Heard, D. Helmig, M. R. Hoffmann, R. E. Honrath, L. G. Huey, M. Hutterli, H. W. Jacobi, P. Klan, J. McConnell, J. Plane, R. Sander, J. Savarino, P. B. Shepson, W. R. Simpson, J. R. Sodeau, R. von Glasow, R. Weller, E. W. Wolff, and T. Zhu, An overview of snow photochemistry: evidence, mechanisms and impacts, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 4329-4373, doi:10.5194/acp-7-4329-2007 (2007)
  38. Hagler, G. S. W., M. H. Bergin, E. A. Smith, J. E. Dibb, C. Anderson, and E. J. Steig, Particulate and water-soluble carbon measured in recent snow at Summit, Greenland, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L16505, doi:10.1029/2007GL030110 (2007)
  39. Hagler, G.S.W., M.H. Bergin, E.A. Smith, and J.E. Dibb, A summer time series of particulate carbon in the air and snow at Summit, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 112(D21), D21309, doi:10.1029/2007JD008993 (2007)
  40. Hagler, G., M. Bergin, E. Smith, J. Dibb, C. Anderson, R. Griffin, J. Schauer, M. Shafer, E. von Schneidemesser, and E. Steig, Measurement of atmospheric and snow-phase carbonaceous particulates and gases on the Greenland Ice Sheet, Geophysical Research Abstracts, (2007)
  41. Hellebust, S., B. O'Riordan, and J. Sodeau, Cirrus cloud mimics in the laboratory: An infrared spectroscopy study of thin films of mixed ice of water with organic acids and ammonia, The Journal of Chemical Physics, 126, 084702, doi:10.1063/1.2464082 (2007)
  42. Helmig, D., F. Bocquet, L. Cohen, and S. J. Oltmans, Ozone uptake to the polar snowpack at Summit, Greenland, Atmospheric Environment, 41(24), 5061-5076, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.06.064 (2007)
  43. Helmig, D., L. Ganzeveld, T. Butler, and S. Oltmans, The role of ozone atmosphere-snow gas exchange on polar, boundary-layer tropospheric ozone – a review and sensitivity analysis, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 15-30, doi:10.5194/acp-7-15-2007 (2007)
  44. Helmig, D., S. J. Oltmans, D. Carlson, J. F. Lamarque, A. Jones, C. Labuschagne, K. Anlauf, and K. Hayden, A review of surface ozone in the polar regions, Atmospheric Environment, 41(24), 5138-5161, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.09.053 (2007)
  45. Helmig, D., S. J. Oltmans, T. O. Morse, and J. E. Dibb, What is causing high ozone at Summit, Greenland?, Atmospheric Environment, 41(24), 5031-5043, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.05.084 (2007)
  46. Hoch, S.W., P. Calanca, R. Philipona, and A. Ohmura, Year-round observation of longwave radiative flux divergence in Greenland, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 46(9), 1469-1479, doi: (2007)
  47. Hutterli, M. A., T. Crueger, H. Fischer, K. K. Andersen, C. C. Raible, T. F. Stocker, M. L. Siggaard-Andersen, J. R. McConnell, R. C. Bales, and J. F. Burkhart, The influence of regional circulation patterns on wet and dry mineral dust and sea salt deposition over Greenland, Climate Dynamics, 28, (6), 635-647, doi:10.1007/s00382-006-0211-z (2007)
  48. Jacobi, H. W. and B. Hilker, A mechanism for the photochemical transformation of nitrate in snow, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 185(2-3), 371-382, doi:10.1016/j.jphotochem.2006.06.039 (2007)
  49. Jarvis, J.C., M.G. Hastings, and E.J. Steig, Changes in the delta 15N of nitrate in Greenland ice; implications for source changes over the last 500 years, 17th annual V. M. Goldschmidt conference, Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71(15S), A441, (2007)
  50. Johnsen, S. J., S. B. Hansen, S. G. Sheldon, D. Dahl-Jensen, J. P. Steffensen, L. Augustin, P. Journe, O. Alemany, H. Rufli, and J. Schwander, The Hans Tausen drill: design, performance, further developments and some lessons learned, Annals of Glaciology, 47(1), 89-98, doi:10.3189/172756407786857686 (2007)
  51. Johnson, J. A., W. P. Mason, A. J. Shturmakov, S. T. Haman, P. J. Sendelbach, N. B. Mortensen, L. J. Augustin, and K. R. Dahnert, A new 122 mm electromechanical drill for deep ice-sheet coring (DISC): 5. Experience during Greenland field testing, Annals of Glaciology, 47(1), 54-60, (2007)
  52. Lal, D., Recycling of cosmogenic nuclides after their removal from the atmosphere; special case of appreciable transport of 10Be to polar regions by aeolian dust, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 264(1-2), 177-187, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007.09.030 (2007)
  53. Lal, D., W. G. Large, and S. G. Walker, Climatic forcing before, during, and after the 8.2 Kyr BP global cooling event, Journal of Earth System Science, 116(3), 171-177, doi:10.1007/s12040-007-0017-3 (2007)
  54. Law, K. S. and A. Stohl, Arctic air pollution: Origins and impacts, Science, 315(5818), 1537, doi:10.1126/science.1137695 (2007)
  55. Lefer, B., M. Hutterli, A. Beyersdorf, N. Blake, D. Blake, D. Sueper, T. Ryerson, J. Burkhart, and A. Stohl, Observations of hydroxyl and the sum of peroxy radicals at Summit, Greenland during summer 2003, Atmospheric Environment, 41, 5122-5137, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.06.065 (2007)
  56. Li, J., H. J. Zwally, and J. C. Comiso, Ice-sheet elevation changes caused by variations of the firn compaction rate induced by satellite-observed temperature variations (1982-2003), Annals of Glaciology, 46(1), 8-13, (2007)
  57. Muscheler, R., F. Joos, J. Beer, S. A. Müller, M. Vonmoos, and I. Snowball, Solar activity during the last 1000 yr inferred from radionuclide records, Quaternary Science Reviews, 26(1-2), 82-97, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.07.012 (2007)
  58. Osterberg, E., P. Mayewski, K. Kreutz, D. Fisher, M. Handley, S. Sneed, C. Zdanowicz, J. Zheng, M. Demuth, and M. Waskiewicz, Ice core record of rising lead pollution in the North Pacific atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L05810, doi:10.1029/2007GL032680 (2007)
  59. Peltier, W., Rapid climate change and Arctic Ocean freshening, Geology, 35(12), 1147-1148, doi:10.1130/focus122007.1 (2007)
  60. Quinn, P., G. Shaw, E. Andrews, E. Dutton, T. Ruoho-Airola, and S. Gong, Arctic haze: current trends and knowledge gaps, Tellus, Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 59(1), 99-114, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2006.00238.x (2007)
  61. Rasmussen, S. O., I. Seierstad, K. K. Andersen, M. Bigler, D. Dahl-Jensen, and S. J. Johnsen, Calcium concentration ratios from the ice core GRIP on the GICC05 time scale, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.586876 (2007)
  62. Rasmussen, S., B. Vinther, H. Clausen, and K. Andersen, Early Holocene climate oscillations recorded in three Greenland ice cores, Quaternary Science Reviews, 26(15-16), 1907-1914, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2007.06.015 (2007)
  63. Ray, L.E., J.H. Lever, A.D. Streeter, and A.D. Price, Design and power management of a solar-powered "cool robot" for polar instrument networks, J. Field Robotics, 24: 581–599. doi:10.1002/rob.20163 (2007)
  64. Rohde, R.A., and P.B. Price, Diffusion-controlled metabolism for long-term survival of single isolated microorganisms trapped within ice crystals, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(42), 16592-16597, doi:10.1073/pnas.0708183104 (2007)
  65. Selbekk, R. S. and R. G. Trønnes, The 1362 AD Öræfajökull eruption, Iceland: Petrology and geochemistry of large-volume homogeneous rhyolite, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 160(1-2), 42-58, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2006.08.005 (2007)
  66. Shturmakov, A. J., D. A. Lebar, W. P. Mason, and C. R. Bentley, A new 122 mm electromechanical drill for deep ice-sheet coring (DISC): 1. Design concepts, Annals of Glaciology, 47(1), 28-34, (2007)
  67. Siggaard-Andersen, M. L., P. Ditlevsen, W. Hansen, and S. Johnsen, Two modes of glacial climate during the late stage 5 identified in Greenland ice core records, Climate of the Past Discussions, 3(1), 285-299, doi:10.5194/cpd-3-285-2007 (2007)
  68. Sjostedt, S., L. Huey, D. Tanner, J. Peischl, G. Chen, J. Dibb, B. Lefer, M. Hutterli, A. Beyersdorf, and N. Blake, Observations of hydroxyl and the sum of peroxy radicals at Summit, Greenland during summer 2003, Atmospheric Environment, 41(24), 5122-5137, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.06.065 (2007)
  69. Stott, L., A. Timmermann, and R. Thunell, Southern Hemisphere and deep-sea warming led deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise and tropical warming, Science, 318(5849), 435-438, doi:10.1126/science.1143791 (2007)
  70. Suwa, M., Chronologies for ice cores constrained by their gas records and their implications for climate history for the past 400,000 years, Doctoral Thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States, 205 pp., (2007)
  71. Swanson, A. L., N. J. Blake, D. R. Blake, F. Sherwood Rowland, J. E. Dibb, B. L. Lefer, and E. Atlas, Are methyl halides produced on all ice surfaces? Observations from snow-laden field sites, Atmospheric Environment, 41(24), 5162-5177, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.11.064 (2007)
  72. Thomas, E. R., E. W. Wolff, R. Mulvaney, J. P. Steffensen, S. J. Johnsen, C. Arrowsmith, J. W. C. White, B. Vaughn, and T. Popp, The 8.2 ka event from Greenland ice cores, Quaternary Science Reviews, 26(1-2), 70-81, doi:0.1016/j.quascirev.2006.07.017 (2007)
  73. Uemura, R., Studies on the reconstruction of past temperature changes from stable isotopes of water: records of millennial-scale climate change from polar ice cores, The Quaternary Research (Daiyonki-Kenkyu), 46(2), 147-164, doi:10.4116/jaqua.46.147 (2007)
  74. Willerslev, E., E. Cappellini, W. Boomsma, R. Nielsen, M. B. Hebsgaard, T. B. Brand, M. Hofreiter, M. Bunce, H. N. Poinar, and D. Dahl-Jensen, Ancient biomolecules from deep ice cores reveal a forested southern Greenland, Science, 317(5834), 111-114, doi:10.1126/science.1141758 (2007)


  1. Andersen, K.K., A. Svensson, S.J. Johnsen, S.O. Rasmussen, M. Bigler, R. Röthlisberger, U. Ruth, M. Siggaard-Andersen, J.P. Steffensen, J.P., D. Dahl-Jensen, B.M. Vinther, and H.B. Clausen, The Greenland ice core chronology 2005, 15–42 kyr. part i: constructing the time scale, Quaternary Science Reviews, 25(23-24), 3246-3257, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.08.002 (2006)
  2. Bond, G., The Interaction of Glaciers and Oceans in the Context of Changing Climate, in Glacier Science and Environmental Change (ed P. G. Knight), Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, USA, doi: 10.1002/9780470750636.ch24 (2006)
  3. Bourgeois, C. S., P. Calanca, and A. Ohmura, A field study of the hemispherical directional reflectance factor and spectral albedo of dry snow, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D20108, doi:10.1029/2006JD007296 (2006)
  4. Boutron, C.F., and B. Carlo, Man-induced changes of palladium in polar and alpine snow and ice archives, Man-Induced Changes of Palladium in Polar and Alpine Snow and Ice Archives. In: Zereini F., Alt F. (eds) Palladium Emissions in the Environment. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, doi:10.1007/3-540-29220-9_23 (2006)
  5. Burkhart, J. F., R. C. Bales, J. R. McConnell, and M. A. Hutterli, Influence of North Atlantic Oscillation on anthropogenic transport recorded in northwest Greenland ice cores, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D22309, doi:10.1029/2005JD006771 (2006)
  6. Drummond, C.N., and B.H. Wilkinson, Interannual variability in millennial climate proxy data, J. Geol., 114(3), 325-339, (2006)
  7. Hammer, C.U., Ice-Core Chronology, in Glacier Science and Environmental Change (ed P. G. Knight), Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470750636.ch78 (2006)
  8. Hawley, R.L., and E.M. Morris, Borehole optical stratigraphy and neutron-scattering density measurements at Summit, Greenland, Journal of Glaciology, 52(179), 491-496, doi:10.3189/172756506781828368 (2006)
  9. Hebbinghaus, H., and G. Heinemann, LM simulations of the Greenland boundary layer, comparison with local measurements and SNOWPACK simulations of drifting snow, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 46(1), 36-51, doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2006.05.003 (2006)
  10. Huber, C., U. Beyerle, M. Leuenberger, J. Schwander, R. Kipfer, R. Spahni, J.P. Severinghaus, and K. Weiler, Evidence for molecular size dependent gas fractionation in firn air derived from noble gases, oxygen, and nitrogen measurements, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 243(1-2), 61-73, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.12.036 (2006)
  11. LeGrande, A.N., G.A. Schmidt, D.T. Shindell, C.V. Field, R.L. Miller, D.M. Koch, G. Faluvegi, and G. Hoffmann, Consistent simulations of multiple proxy responses to an abrupt climate change event, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(4), 837-842, doi:10.1073/pnas.0510095103 (2006)
  12. J. H. Lever, A. Streeter and L. R. Ray, Performance of a solar-powered robot for polar instrument networks, Proceedings 2006 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2006. ICRA 2006., Orlando, FL, 2006, 4252-4257, doi:10.1109/ROBOT.2006.1642356 (2006)
  13. Paden, J., Synthetic aperture radar for imaging the basal conditions of the polar ice sheets, Doctoral Thesis, 191 p., (2006)
  14. Prasad, S., A. Brauer, B. Rein, and J.F.W. Negendank, Rapid climate change during the early Holocene in western Europe and Greenland, The Holocene, 16(2), 153-158, doi:10.1191/0959683606hl916ft (2006)
  15. Ryan, S., E. J. Dlugokencky, P. P. Tans and M. Trudeau, Mauna Loa volcano is not a methane source: Implications for Mars, Geophysical Research Letters, 33, 12, L12301, doi:10.1029/2006GL026223 (2006)
  16. Sjostedt, S.J., Investigation of photochemistry at high latitudes: comparison of model predictions to measurements of short lived species, Doctoral Thesis, Georgia Tech University, United States, 187 p., (2006)
  17. Souchez, R., J. Jouzel, A. Landais, J. Chappellaz, R. Lorrain, and J.-L. Tison, Gas isotopes in ice reveal a vegetated central Greenland during ice sheet invasion, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L24503, doi:10.1029/2006GL028424 (2006)
  18. Sowers, T., Late Quaternary atmospheric CH4 isotope record suggests marine clathrates are stable, Science, 311(5762), 838-840, doi:10.1126/science.1121235 (2006)
  19. Stohl, A., E. Andrews, J. F. Burkhart, C. Forster, A. Herber, S. W. Hoch, D. Kowal, C. Lunder, T. Mefford, J. A. Ogren, S. Sharma, N. Spichtinger, K. Stebel, R. S. Stone, J. Strom, K. Torseth, C. Wehrli and K. E. Yttri, Pan-Arctic enhancements of light absorbing aerosol concentrations due to North American boreal forest fires during summer 2004, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 111, D22, , doi:10.1029/2006JD007216 (2006)
  20. Suwa, M., J. C. von Fischer, M. L. Bender, A. Landais, and E. J. Brook, Chronology reconstruction for the disturbed bottom section of the GISP2 and the GRIP ice cores: Implications for Termination II in Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D02101, doi:10.1029/2005JD006032 (2006)
  21. Svensson, A., K.K. Andersen, M. Bigler, H.B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, S.M. Davies, S.J. Johnsen, R. Muscheler, S.O. Rasmussen, R. Röthlisberger, J.P. Steffensen, and B.M. Vinther, The Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005, 15-42 ka: Part 2, Comparison to other records, Quaternary Science Reviews, 25(23-24), 3258-3267, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.08.003 (2006)
  22. Vinther, B.M., Greenland and North Atlantic climatic conditions during the Holocene- as seen in high resolution stable isotope data from Greenland ice cores, Doctoral Thesis, University of Copehagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, 138 p., (2006)


  1. Alley, R.B., and A.M. Ágústsdóttir, The 8k event: Cause and consequences of a major Holocene abrupt climate change, Quaternary Science Reviews, 24(10–11), 1123-1149, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.12.004 (2005)
  2. Clarke, G.K.C., N. Lhomme, and S.J. Marshall, Tracer transport in the Greenland ice sheet: three-dimensional isotopic stratigraphy, Quaternary Science Reviews, 24(1-2), 155-171, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.08.021 (2005)
  3. Currie, L.A., J.D. Kessler, R.A. Fletcher, and J.E. Dibb, Long range transport of biomass aerosol to Greenland: Multi-spectroscopic investigation of particles deposited in the snow, Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 263, 399-411 (2005)
  4. Dassau, T.M., Air/snow interactions of volatile organic compounds in the Arctic, Doctoral Thesis, Univ. Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI, United States, 126 p., (2005)
  5. Gogineni, S., K. Jezek, J. Paden, C. Allen, P. Kanagaratnam, and T. Akins, Radars for imaging and sounding of polar ice sheets, Workshop on Radar investigations of planetary and terrestrial environments, Houston, TX, United States, Feb. 7-10, 2005, LPI Contribution, Report: 1231, pp.34, (2005)
  6. Hastings, M. G., D. M. Sigman, and E. J. Steig, Glacial/interglacial changes in the isotopes of nitrate from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) ice core, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, GB4024, doi:10.1029/2005GB002502 (2005)
  7. Hawley, R.L., Borehole investigations of firn processes, Doctoral Thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States (USA), 96 p., (2005)
  8. Hoch, S.W., Radiative flux divergence in the surface boundary layer. A study based on observations at Summit, Greenland, Ph.D. thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, (2005)
  9. Lal, D., A.J.T. Jull, D. Pollard, and L. Vacher, Evidence for large century time-scale changes in solar activity in the past 32 kyr, based on in-situ cosmogenic 14C in ice at Summit, Greenland, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 234(3-4), 335-349, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.02.011 (2005)
  10. Lhomme, N., G.K.C. Clarke, and S.J. Marshall, Tracer transport in the Greenland ice sheet; constraints on ice cores and glacial history, Quaternary Science Reviews, 24(1-2), 173-194, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.08.020 (2005)
  11. Mann, J.L., S.E. Long, C.A. Shuman, and W.R. Kelly, Determination of mercury content in a shallow firn core from Greenland by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 163(1-4), 19-32, doi:10.1007/s11270-005-7607-y (2005)
  12. Mann, J.L., Determination of sulfur isotope composition in sulfate from two high elevation snowpits by multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometry using a double spike, Doctoral Thesis, Univ. Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI, United States, 220 p., (2005)
  13. Masson-Delmotte, V., J. Jouzel, A. Landais, M. Stievenard, S.J. Johnsen, J.W.C. White, M. Werner, A. Sveinbjornsdottir, and K. Fuhrer, GRIP deuterium excess reveals rapid and orbital-scale changes in Greenland moisture origin, Science, 309(5731), 118-121, doi:10.1126/science.1108575 (2005)
  14. Muscheler, R., J. Beer, P.W. Kubik, and H.A. Synal, Geomagnetic field intensity during the last 60,000 years based on 10Be and 36Cl from the Summit ice cores and 14C, Quaternary Science Reviews, 24(16-17), 1849-1860, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.01.012 (2005)
  15. Nederbragt, A.J., and J. Thurow, Geographic coherence of millennial-scale climate cycles during the Holocene, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 221(3-4), 313-324, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.03.002 (2005)
  16. Rosendahl, W., D. Döppes, U. Joger, R. Laskowski, M. López Correa, R. Nielbock and V. Wrede, New radiometric dating of different cave bear sites in Germany; results and interpretations, Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse, 141, 39-46, (2005)
  17. Schaefer, H., Stable carbon isotopic composition of methane from ancient ice samples, Doctoral Thesis, Univ. Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI, United States, 19 p., (2005)
  18. Sluijs, A., J. Pross, and H. Brinkhuis, From greenhouse to icehouse; organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts as paleoenvironmental indicators in the Paleogene, Earth-Science Reviews, 68(3-4), 281-315, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2004.06.001 (2005)
  19. Tung, H.C., N.E. Bramall, and P.B. Price, Microbial origin of excess methane in glacial ice and implications for life on Mars, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(51), 18292-18296, doi:10.1073/pnas.0507601102 (2005)


  1. Bay, R.C., N. Bramall, and P.B. Price, Bipolar correlation of volcanism with millennial climate change, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(17) 6341-6345, doi:10.1073/pnas.0400323101 (2004)
  2. Borzenkova, I.I., and Y.A. Trapeznikov, Bystryye kolebaniya klimata v pozdnem pleystotsene; vozmozhnyye prichiny i mekhanizmy. Fast climate fluctuations during late Pleistocene; possible causes and mechanisms, Materialy Glyatsiologicheskikh Issledovaniy, 97, 17-23, (2004)
  3. Burkhart, J. F., M. Hutterli, R. C. Bales, and J. R. McConnell, Seasonal accumulation timing and preservation of nitrate in firn at Summit, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D19302, doi:10.1029/2004JD004658 (2004)
  4. Dassau, T. M., P. B. Shepson, J. W. Bottenheim, and K. M. Ford, Peroxyacetyl nitrate photochemistry and interactions with the Arctic surface, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D18302, doi:10.1029/2004JD004562 (2004)
  5. de Garidel-Thoron, T., L. Beaufort, F. Bassinot, Franck, and P. Henry, Evidence for large methane releases to the atmosphere from deep-sea gas-hydrate dissociation during the last glacial episode, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(25), 9187-9192, doi:10.1073/pnas.0402909101 (2004)
  6. Dibb, J. E., and M. Fahnestock, Snow accumulation, surface height change, and firn densification at Summit, Greenland: Insights from 2 years of in situ observation, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D24113, doi:10.1029/2003JD004300 (2004)
  7. Donarummo, J. Jr, Relationship between the GISP2 dust concentration profile and the Wolf sunspot number, 1752-1988 AD: influence of solar variability and interference by explosive volcanism, Doctoral Thesis, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, United States, 76 p., (2004)
  8. Grachev, A.M., Laboratory-determined air thermal diffusion constants applied to reconstructing the magnitudes of past abrupt temperature changes from gas isotope observations in polar ice cores, Doctoral Thesis, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States (USA), 296 p., (2004)
  9. Hastings, M. G., E. J. Steig, and D. M. Sigman, Seasonal variations in N and O isotopes of nitrate in snow at Summit, Greenland: Implications for the study of nitrate in snow and ice cores, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D20306, doi:10.1029/2004JD004991 (2004)
  10. Heiri, O., W. Tinner, and A.F. Lotter, Evidence for cooler European summers during periods of changing meltwater flux to the North Atlantic, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(43), 15285-15288, doi:10.1073/pnas.0406594101 (2004)
  11. Hughen, K., S. Lehman, J. Southon, J. Overpeck, O. Marchal, C. Herring, and J. Turnbull, 14C activity and global carbon cycle changes over the past 50,000 years, Science, 303(5655), 202-207, doi:10.1126/science.1090300 (2004)
  12. Jacobi, H.-W., R.C. Bales, R.E. Honrath, M.C. Peterson, J.E. Dibb, A.L. Swanson and M.R. Albert, Reactive trace gases measured in the interstitial air of surface snow at Summit, Greenland, Atmospheric Environment, 38, 1687-1697, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.01.004 (2004)
  13. Parizek, B.R., and R.B. Alley, Implications of increased Greenland surface melt under global-warming scenarios; ice-sheet simulations, Quaternary Science Reviews, 23(9-10), 1013-1027, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2003.12.024 (2004)
  14. Prasad, S., H. Vos, J.F.W. Negendank, N. Waldmann, S.L. Goldstein, and M. Stein, Evidence from Lake Lisan of solar influence on decadal- to centennial-scale climate variability during marine oxygen isotope Stage 2, Geology (Boulder), 32(7), 581-584, doi:10.1130/G20553.1 (2004)


  1. Blake, N. J., D. R. Blake, B. C. Sive, A. S. Katzenstein, S. Meinardi, O. W. Wingenter, E. L. Atlas, F. Flocke, B. A. Ridley, and F. S. Rowland, The seasonal evolution of NMHCs and light alkyl nitrates at middle to high northern latitudes during TOPSE, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 8359, doi:10.1029/2001JD001467, D4 (2003)
  2. Bradley, R.S., Climate forcing during the Holocene, PAGES News, 11(2-3), 18-19 (2003)
  3. Burton, G.R., C.F. Boutron, S. Hong, J.P. Candelone, and K.J.R. Rosman, Strontium isotope measurements in Greeland ice from the last glacial maximum to the early Holocene, XIIth international conference on Heavy metals in the environment, Grenoble, France, May 26-30, 2003, Journal de Physique. IV, 107, 241-244, doi:10.1051/jp4:20030287 (2003)
  4. Liang, C., and C. Anastasio, Quantum Yields of Hydroxyl Radical and Nitrogen Dioxide from the Photolysis of Nitrate on Ice, Journal of Physical Chemistry A,107, 9594-9602, doi:10.1021/jp0349132 (2003)
  5. Cullen, N.J., Characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer at Summit, Greenland, Doctoral Thesis, Univ. Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI, United States, 145 p., (2003)
  6. Dawson, A.G., L. Elliott, P.A. Mayewski, P. Lockett, S. Noone, K. Hickey, T. Holt, P. Wadhams, and I. Foster, Late-Holocene North Atlantic climate 'seesaws', storminess changes and Greenland ice sheet (GISP2) palaeoclimates, 11th international meeting of the European Union of Geosciences, Strasbourg, France, April 2001, The Holocene, 13(3), 381-392, doi:10.1191/0959683603hl631rp (2003)
  7. Drüe, C., and G. Heinemann, Investigation of the Greenland atmospheric boundary layer over Summit 2002 (IGLOS); field phase report, Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung = Reports on Polar and Marine Research, 447, 81 p., (2003)
  8. Grachev, A.M., and J.P. Severinghaus, Laboratory determination of thermal diffusion constants for 29N2 / 28N2 in air at temperatures from -60 to 0 degrees C for reconstruction of magnitudes of abrupt climate changes using the ice core fossil-air paleothermometer, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 67(3), 345-360, doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(02)01115-8 (2003)
  9. Hutterli, M. A., J. R. McConnell, R. C. Bales, and R. W. Stewart, Sensitivity of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) preservation in snow to changing environmental conditions: Implications for ice core records, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D1), 4023, doi:10.1029/2002JD002528 (2003)
  10. Karner, D.B., J. Levine, R.A. Muller, F. Asaro, M. Ram, and M. Stolz, Extraterrestrial accretion from the GISP2 ice core, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 67(4), 751-763, doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(02)01145-6 (2003)
  11. Kissel, C., C. Laj, R. Muscheler, and J. Beer, High resolution global paleointensity stack since 75 kyrs (GLOPIS-75) calibrated to absolute values, XVI INQUA congress; Shaping the Earth; a Quaternary perspective, Reno, NV, United States, July 23-30, 2003, Congress of the International Union for Quaternary Research, 16, 89, (2003)
  12. Krinner, G., and M. Werner, Impact of precipitation seasonality changes on isotopic signals in polar ice cores: a multi-model analysis, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 216(4), 525-538, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00550-8 (2003)
  13. Pahnke, K., R. Zahn, H. Elderfield, and M. Schulz, 340,000-year centennial-scale marine record of Southern Hemisphere climatic oscillation, Science, 301(5635), 948-952, doi:10.1126/science.1084451 (2003)
  14. Rahmstorf, S., Timing of abrupt climate change: a precise clock, Geophysical Research Letters, 30(10), doi:10.1029/2003GL017115 (2003)
  15. Sarnthein, M., S. van Kreveld, H. Erlenkeuser, P.M. Grootes, M. Kucera, U. Pflaumann, and M. Schulz, Centennial-to-millennial-scale periodicities of Holocene climate and sediment injections off the western Barents shelf, 75°N, Boreas, 32(3), 447-461, doi:10.1111/j.1502-3885.2003.tb01227.x (2003)
  16. Severinghaus, J.P., A.M. Grachev, B. Luz, and N. Caillon, A method for precise measurement of argon 40/36 and krypton/argon ratios in trapped air in polar ice with applications to past firn thickness and abrupt climate change in Greenland and at Siple Dome, Antarctica, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 67(3), 325-343, doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(02)00965-1 (2003)
  17. Shimohara, K., A. Miyamoto, K. Hyakutake, H. Shoji, M. Takata, and S. Kipfstuhl, Cloudy band observations for annual layer counting on the GRIP and NGRIP, Greenland, deep ice core samples, International symposium on the Dome Fuji ice core and related topics, Tokyo, Japan, Feb. 27-28, 2001, Memoirs of National Institute of Polar Research, Special Issue, 57, 161-167, (2003)
  18. Sirocko, F., What drove past teleconnections?, Science, 301(5638), 1336-1337, doi:10.1126/science.1088626 (2003)
  19. Sowers, T., R.B. Alley, and J. Jubenville, Ice core records of atmospheric N2O covering the last 106,000 years, Science, 301(5635), 945-948, doi:10.1126/science.1085293 (2003)
  20. Stenni, B., The stable isotope tool in paleoclimatology; the ice core records [Applicazione degli isotopi stabili in paleoclimatologia; le carote di ghiaccio], Ricostruzione paleoclimatica del tardiglaciale-Olocene da concrezioni di grotta in Italia–Paleoclimate reconstruction during the late glacial and Holocene from speleothem records of Italy, edited by U. Sauro, A. Borsato and B. Castiglioni. Studi Trentini di Scienze Naturali: Acta Geologica, 80, 17-27, (2003)
  21. Swanson, A.L., N.J. Blake, E. Atlas, F. Flocke, D.R. Blake, and F.S. Rowland, Seasonal variations of C2-C4 nonmethane hydrocarbons and C1-C4 alkyl nitrates at the Summit research station in Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4065, doi:10.1029/2001JD001445, D2 (2003)
  22. Wang J., and T. Yao, A review of methanesulfonate in ice cores, Bingchuan Dongtu, Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 25(4), 465-470, (2003)


  1. Albert, M.R., and R.L. Hawley, Seasonal changes in snow surface roughness characteristics at Summit, Greenland: implications for snow and firn ventilation, Annals of Glaciology, 35, 510-514, doi:10.3189/172756402781816591 (2002)
  2. Albert, M.R., and E.F. Shultz, Snow and firn properties and air-snow transport processes at Summit, Greenland, Atmospheric Environment (1994), 36, 2789-2797, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00119-X (2002)
  3. Bigler, M., D. Wagenbach, H. Fischer, J. Kipfstuhl, H. Miller, S. Sommer, and B. Stauffer, Sulphate record from a Northeast Greenland ice core over the last 1200 years based on continuous flow analysis, Annals of Glaciology, 35, 250-256, doi:10.3189/172756402781817158 (2002)
  4. Blunier, T., B. Barnett, M.L. Bender, and M.B. Hendricks, Biological oxygen productivity during the last 60,000 years from triple oxygen isotope measurements, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16(3), doi:10.1029/2001GB001460 (2002)
  5. Bottenheim, J.W., J.E. Dibb, R.E. Honrath and P.B. Shepson, An introduction to the ALERT2000 and Summit2000 Arctic research studies, Atmospheric Environment, 36, 2467-2469, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00135-8 (2002)
  6. Box, J.E., Survey of Greenland instrumental temperature records: 1873–2001, Int. J. Climatol., 22, 1829–1847, doi:10.1002/joc.852 (2002)
  7. Clauer, C. R., and V. G. Petrov, A statistical investigation of traveling convection vortices observed by the west coast Greenland magnetometer chain, J. Geophys. Res., 107(A7), doi:10.1029/2001JA000228, 2002
  8. Cullen, D.C., The structure and chemistry of polar glacier ice, Doctoral Thesis, Univ. Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI, United States, 313 pp., (2002)
  9. Dahl-Jensen, D., N.S. Gundestrup, H. Miller, O. Watanabe, S.J. Johnsen, J.P. Steffensen, H.B. Clausen, A. Svensson, and L.B. Larsen, The NorthGRIP deep drilling programme, Annals of Glaciology, 35, 1-4, doi:10.3189/172756402781817275 (2002)
  10. Dassau, T.M., A.L. Sumner, S.L. Koeniger, P.B. Shepson, J. Yang, R.E. Honrath, N.J. Cullen, K. Steffen, H. Jacobi, M. Frey, and R.C. Bales, Investigation of the role of the snowpack on atmospheric formaldehyde chemistry at Summit, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D19), 4394, doi:10.1029/2002JD002182 (2002)
  11. Drab, E., A. Gaudichet, J. Jaffrezo, and J. Colin, Mineral particles content in recent snow at Summit (Greenland), Atmospheric Environment, 36(34), 5365-5376, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00470-3 (2002)
  12. Dibb, J.E., M. Arsenault, M.C. Peterson, and R.E. Honrath, Fast nitrogen oxide photochemistry in Summit, Greenland snow, Atmospheric Environment, 36(15-16), 2501-2511, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00130-9 (2002)
  13. Dibb, J.E., and M. Arsenault, Shouldn't snowpacks be sources of monocarboxylic acids?, Atmospheric Environment, 36, 2513-2522, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00131-0 (2002)
  14. Fisher, D.A., R.M. Koerner, G.A. Zielinski, C.P. Wake, C.M. Zdanowicz, J.C. Bourgeois, P.A. Mayewski, and N. Grummet, The effects of flowline length evolution on chemistry-delta 18O profiles from Penny ice cap, Baffin Island, Canada, Annals of Glaciology, 35, 150-156, doi:10.3189/172756402781817257 (2002)
  15. Ford, K.M., B.M. Campbell, P.B. Shepson, S.B. Bertman, R.E. Honrath, M. Peterson, and J.E. Dibb, Studies of Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and its interaction with the snowpack at Summit, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D10), doi:10.1029/2001JD000547 (2002)
  16. Hamilton, G.S., and I.M. Whillans, Local rates of ice-sheet thickness change in Greenland, Annals of Glaciology, 35, 79-83, doi:10.3189/172756402781817383 (2002)
  17. Helmig, D, J Boulter, D David, J. Birks, N. Cullen, K Steffen, B. J. Johnson and S. J. Oltmans, Ozone and meteorological Summit, Greenland, boundary-layer conditions at during 3-21 June 2000, Atmospheric Environment, 36, 15-16, 2595-2608, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00129-2 (2002)
  18. Honrath, R., Y. Lu, M. Peterson, J. Dibb, M. Arsenault, N. Cullen, and K. Steffen, Vertical fluxes of NOx, HONO, and HNO3 above the snowpack at Summit, Greenland, Atmospheric Environment, 36(15-16), 2629-2640, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00132-2 (2002)
  19. Hvidberg, C.S., K. Keller, and N.S. Gundestrup, Mass balance and ice flow along the north-northwest ridge of the Greenland ice sheet at NorthGRIP, Annals of Glaciology, 35, 521-526, doi:10.3189/172756402781816500 (2002)
  20. Jacobi, H. W., M. M. Frey, M. A. Hutterli, R. C. Bales, O. Schrems, N. J. Cullen, K. Steffen, and C. Koehler, Measurements of hydrogen peroxide and formaldehyde exchange between the atmosphere and surface snow at Summit, Greenland, Atmospheric Environment, 36(15-16), 2619-2628, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00106-1 (2002)
  21. Li, J., W. Wang, and H.J. Zwally, Interannual variations of shallow firn temperature at Greenland Summit, Annals of Glaciology, 35, 68-370, doi:10.3189/172756402781816933 (2002)
  22. Luciano, G.L., and M.R. Albert, Bidirectional permeability measurements of polar firn, Annals of Glaciology, 35, 63-66, doi:10.3189/172756402781817095 (2002)
  23. Marshall, S.J., and P.U. Clark, Basal temperature evolution of North American ice sheets and implications for the 100-kyr cycle, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(24), 2214, doi:10.1029/2002GL015192 (2002)
  24. McConnell, J.R., G.W. Lamorey, and M.A. Hutterli, A 250-year high-resolution record of Pb flux and crustal enrichment in central Greenland, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(23), 2130, doi:10.1029/2002GL016016 (2002)
  25. Miller, J.E., J.D.W. Kahl, F. Heller, and J.M. Harris, A three-dimensional residence-time analysis of potential summertime atmospheric transport to Summit, Greenland, Annals of Glaciology, 35, 403-408, doi:10.3189/172756402781816663 (2002)
  26. Miners, W.D., E.W. Wolff, J.C. Moore, R. Jacobel, and L. Hempel, Modeling the radio echo reflections inside the ice sheet at Summit, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 107(B8), doi:10.1029/2001JB000535 (2002)
  27. Morgan, V., M. Delmotte, T. van Ommen, J. Jouzel, J. Chappellaz, S. Woon, V. Masson-Delmotte, and D. Raynaud, Relative timing of deglacial climate events in Antarctica and Greenland, Science, 297(5588), 1862-1864, doi:10.1126/science.1074257 (2002)
  28. Muscheler, R., J. Beer, C. Laj, C. Kissel, A. Mazaud, and P.W. Kubik, 10Be and 14C during the last deglaciation, 12th annual V. M. Goldschmidt conference, Davos, Switzerland, Aug. 18-23, 2002, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 66(15A), 538, (2002)
  29. Patris, N., R.J. Delmas, M. Legrand, M. De Angelis, F.A. Ferron, M. Stievenard, and J. Jouzel, First sulfur isotope measurements in central Greenland ice cores along the preindustrial and industrial periods, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D11), doi:10.1029/2001JD000672 (2002)
  30. Qiu, R., S. Green, R. Honrath, M. Peterson, Y. Lu, and M. Dziobak, Measurements of JNO3 in snow by nitrate-based actinometry, Atmospheric Environment, 36(15-16), 2563-2571, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00117-6 (2002)
  31. Rind, D., The Sun's role in climate variations, Science, 296(5568), 673-677, doi:10.1126/science.1069562 (2002)
  32. Slater, J. F., L.A. Currie, J.E. Dibb, and B.A. Benner, Distinguishing the relative contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion aerosols deposited at Summit, Greenland through isotopic and molecular characterization of insoluble carbon, Atmospheric Environment, 36, 4463-4477, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00402-8 (2002)
  33. Southon, J., A First Step to Reconciling the GRIP and GISP2 Ice-Core Chronologies, 0-14,500 yr B.P., Quaternary Research, 57(1), 32-37, doi:10.1006/qres.2001.2295 (2002)
  34. Swanson, A.L., Observations of surface snow photochemistry from field measurements at Summit, Greenland, Doctoral Thesis, Univ. Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI, United States, 113 pp., (2002)
  35. Swanson, A.L., N.J. Blake, J.E. Dibb, M.R. Albert, D.R. Blake, and F.S. Rowland, Photochemically induced production of CH3Br, CH3I, C2H5I, ethene, and propene within surface snow at Summit, Greenland, Atmospheric Environment (1994), 36, 2671-2682, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00127-9 (2002)
  36. Sowers, T., A. Rodebaugh, N. Yoshida, and S. Toyoda, Extending records of the isotopic composition of atmospheric N2O back to 1800 A.D. from air trapped in snow at South Pole and the Greenland Ice Sheet Project II ice core, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16(4), 1129, doi:10.1029/2002GB001911 (2002)
  37. Talalay, P.G., and N.S. Gundestrup, Hydrostatic pressure and fluid density profile in deep ice bore-holes, Memoirs of National Institute of Polar Research. Special Issue, Vol.56, p.171-180, ; Fifth international workshop on Ice drilling technology, Nagaoka, Japan, Oct. 30-Nov. 1, 2000, edited by N. Azuma and Y. Fujii, National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo, Japan, (2002)
  38. Werner, M., and M. Heimann, Modeling interannual variability of water isotopes in Greenland and Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D1), doi:10.1029/2001JD900253 (2002)
  39. Yang, J., R. Honrath, M. Peterson, J. Dibb, A. Sumner, P. Shepson, M. Frey, H. W. Jacobi, A. Swanson, and N. Blake, Impacts of snowpack emissions on deduced levels of OH and peroxy radicals at Summit, Greenland, Atmospheric Environment, 36(15-16), 2523-2534, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00128-0 (2002)
  40. Zwally, H.J., and L. Jun, Seasonal and interannual variations of firn densification and ice-sheet surface elevation at the Greenland Summit, Journal of Glaciology, 48(161), 199-207, doi:10.3189/172756502781831403 (2002)


Peterson, M.C., R.E. Honrath, Observations of rapid photochemical destruction of ozone in snowpack interstitial air, Geophysical Research Letters, 28(3), 511–514, doi:10.1029/2000GL012129 (2001)

  1. Blunier, T., and E.J. Brook, Timing of millennial-scale climate change in Antarctica and Greenland during the last glacial period, Science, 291(5501), 109-112, doi:10.1126/science.291.5501.109 (2001)
  2. Cullen, N.J., and K. Steffen, Unstable near-surface boundary conditions in summer on top of the Greenland Ice Sheet, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28: 4491–4493, doi:10.1029/2001GL013417 (2001)
  3. Gowlett, J.A.J., Archaeology: Out in the cold, Nature, 413(6851), 33-34, doi:10.1038/35092660 (2001)
  4. Grumet, N.S., C.P. Wake, P.A. Mayewski, G.A. Zielinksi, S.I. Whitlow, R.M. Koerner, D.A. Fisher, and J. Woollett, Variability of sea-ice extent in Baffin Bay over the last millennium, Climatic Change, 49(1-2), 129-145, doi:10.1023/A:1010794528219 (2001)
  5. Hoffmann, G., J. Jouzel, and S. Johnsen, Deuterium excess record from central Greenland over the last millennium: Hints of a North Atlantic signal during the Little Ice Age, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D13), 14265–14274, doi:10.1029/2000JD900585 (2001)
  6. Hutterli, M. A., J. R. McConnell, R. W. Stewart, H.-W. Jacobi, and R. C. Bales, Impact of temperature-driven cycling of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) between air and snow on the planetary boundary layer, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D14), 15395–15404, doi:10.1029/2001JD900102 (2001)
  7. Irino, T., K. Ikehara, H. Katayama, Y. Ono, and R. Tada, East Asian monsoon signals recorded in the Japan Sea sediments, PAGES News, 9(2), 13-14, (2001)
  8. Johnsen, S.J., D. Dahl-Jensen, N. Gundestrup, J.P. Steffensen, H.B. Clausen, H. Miller, V. Masson-Delmotte, A.E. Sveinbjornsdottir, and J.W.C. White, Oxygen isotope and palaeotemperature records from six Greenland ice-core stations: Camp Century, Dye-3, GRIP, GISP2, Renland and NorthGRIP, J. Quaternary Sci., 16, 299–307, doi:10.1002/jqs.622 (2001)
  9. Lepper, K., M.-L. Siggaard-Andersen, N.A. Larsen, C.U. Hammer, and S.W.S. McKeever, Characterization of luminescence properties of insoluble mineral grains extracted from the Greenland Summit GRIP ice core, and their potential for luminescence dating, Radiation Measurements, 33(4), 445-455, doi:10.1016/S1350-4487(01)00052-X (2001)
  10. McKibben, M., J. Kelly, and T. Valentic, Meeting the challenges of Arctic communications at the Summit Science Camp on Greenland's icecap, The Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Vol.11(Vol. 1), Eleventh (2001) international offshore and polar engineering conference, Stavanger, Norway, June 17-22, 2001, edited by J.S. Chung, M. Sayed, H. Saeki and T. Setoguchi, International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers, Golden, CO, United States, 653-655, (2001)
  11. Rempel, A.W., E.D. Waddington, J.S. Wettlaufer, and M.G. Worster, M G, Possible displacement of the climate signal in ancient ice by premelting and anomalous diffusion, Nature, 411(6837), 568-571, doi:10.1038/35079043 (2001)
  12. Rignot, E., K. Echelmayer, and W. Krabill, Penetration depth of interferometric synthetic-aperture radar signals in snow and ice, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3501–3504, doi:10.1029/2000GL012484 (2001)
  13. Ryan, S., Estimating Volcanic CO2 Emission Rates from Atmospheric Measurements on the Slope of Mauna Loa, Chemical Geology, 177 (1-2), 201-211, 10.1016/S0009-2541(00)00392-2 (2001)
  14. Servant, J., The 100 kyr cycle of deglaciation during the last 450 kyr: a new interpretation of oceanic and ice core data, Global and Planetary Change, 29(1-2), 121-133, doi:10.1016/S0921-8181(00)00088-6 (2001)
  15. Shackleton, N., Climate change across the hemispheres, Science, 291(5501), 58-59, doi:10.1126/science.10.1126/SCIENCE.1057253 (2001)
  16. Shuman, C.A., K. Steffen, J.E. Box, and C.R. Stearns, A dozen years of temperature observations at the Summit; central Greenland automatic weather stations 1987-99, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 40(4), 741-752, doi:10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<0741:ADYOTO>2.0.CO;2 (2001)
  17. Siani, G., M. Paterne, E. Michel, R. Sulpizio, A. Sbrana, M. Arnold, and G. Haddad, Mediterranean Sea Surface Radiocarbon Reservoir Age Changes Since the Last Glacial Maximum, Science, 294(5548), 1917-1920, doi:10.1126/science.1063649 (2001)
  18. Slater, J.F., J.E. Dibb, B.D. Keim, and J.D.W. Kahl, Relationships between synoptic-scale transport and interannual variability of inorganic cations in surface snow at Summit, Greenland: 1992–1996, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D18), 20897–20912, doi:10.1029/2001JD000805 (2001)
  19. Tinner, W., and A.F. Lotter, Central European vegetation response to abrupt climate change at 8.2 ka, Geology (Boulder), 29(6), 551-554, doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2001)029<0551:CEVRTA>2.0.CO;2 (2001)
  20. Wagner, G., C. Laj, J. Beer, C. Kissel, R. Muscheler, J. Masarik, and H.A. Synal, Reconstruction of the paleoaccumulation rate of central Greenland during the last 75 kyr using the cosmogenic radionuclides 36Cl and 10Be and geomagnetic field intensity data, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 193(3-4), 515-521, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(01)00504-0 (2001)
  21. Wang, Y.J., H. Cheng, R.L. Edwards, Z.S. An, J.Y. Wu, C.C. Shen, and J.A. Dorale, A High-Resolution Absolute-Dated Late Pleistocene Monsoon Record from Hulu Cave, China, Science, 294(5550), 2345-2348, doi:10.1126/science.1064618 (2001)
  22. Yu, Z., and U. Eicher, Three amphi-Atlantic century-scale cold events during the Bolling-Allerod warm period, Geographie Physique et Quaternaire, 55(2), 171-179, doi:10.7202/008301ar (2001)


  1. Albert, M.R., and R.L. Hawley, Seasonal differences in surface energy exchange and accumulation at Summit, Greenland, Annals of Glaciology, 31, 387-390, doi:10.3189/172756400781820129 (2000)
  2. Betancourt, J.L., The Amazon Reveals Its Secrets--Partly, Science, 290(5500), 2274-2275, doi:10.1126/science.290.5500.2274 (2000)
  3. Christner, B.C., E. Mosley-Thompson, L.G. Thompson, V. Zagorodnov, K. Sandman, and J.N. Reeve, Recovery and Identification of Viable Bacteria Immured in Glacial Ice, Icarus, 144(2), 479-485, doi:10.1006/icar.1999.6288 (2000)
  4. Dahl-Jensen, D., T. Thorsteinsson, and R.B. Alley, Simulation of uniaxial compression tests using Taylor-type models in which crystal rotation and recrystallization processes are included, International symposium on Physics of ice core records, Shikotsukohan, Japan, Sept. 14-17, 1998, edited by T. Hondoh; Hokkaido University, Institute of Low Temperature Science, Sapporo. Publisher: Hokkaido University Press, Sapporo, Japan, p. 117 (2000)
  5. Honrath, R.E., S. Guo, M.C. Peterson, M.P Dziobak, J.E. Dibb, and M.A. Arsenault, Photochemical production of gas phase NOx from ice crystal NO3-, J. Geophys. Res., 105(D19), 24183–24190, doi:10.1029/2000JD900361 (2000)
  6. Jubenville, J.J., A 106,000 year N2O record from the GISP2 ice core, Master's Thesis, Pennsylvania State University at University Park, University Park, PA, 119 p. (2000)
  7. Keigwin, L.D., and E.A. Boyle, Detecting Holocene changes in thermohaline circulation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(4), 1343-1346, doi:10.1073/pnas.97.4.1343 (2000)
  8. Labeyrie, L., Glacial Climate Instability, Science, 290(5498), 1905-1907, doi:10.1126/science.290.5498.1905 (2000)
  9. Lal, D., A.J.T. Jull, G.S. Burr, and D.J. Donahue, On the characteristics of cosmogenic in situ 14C in some GISP2 Holocene and late glacial ice samples, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 172, 623-631, doi:10.1016/S0168-583X(00)00275-5 (2000)
  10. Lowenthal, D.H., J.C. Chow, D.M. Mazzera, J.G. Watson, and B.W. Mosher, Aerosol vanadium at McMurdo Station, Antarctica:: implications for Dye 3, Greenland, Atmospheric Environment, 34(4), 677-679, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00337-4 (2000)
  11. Marshall, S.J., and K.M. Cuffey, Peregrinations of the Greenland Ice Sheet divide in the last glacial cycle: implications for central Greenland ice cores, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 179(1), 73-90, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(00)00108-4 (2000)
  12. Muscheler, R., J. Beer, G. Wagner, and R.C. Finkel, Changes in deep-water formation during the Younger Dryas event inferred from 10Be and 14C records, Nature, 408(6812), 567-570, doi:10.1038/35046041 (2000)
  13. Peterson, L.C., G.H. Haug, K.A. Hughen, and U. Roehl, Rapid Changes in the Hydrologic Cycle of the Tropical Atlantic During the Last Glacial, Science, 290(5498), 1947-1951, doi:10.1126/science.290.5498.1947 (2000)
  14. Rosman, K.J.R., C. Ly, K. van de Velde, and C.F. Boutron, A two century record of lead isotopes in high altitude Alpine snow and ice, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 176(3-4), 413-424, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(00)00013-3 (2000)
  15. Sherrell, R. M., E. A. Boyle, K. K. Falkner, and N. R. Harris (2000), Temporal variability of Cd, Pb, and Pb isotope deposition in central Greenland snow, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 1, 1002, doi:10.1029/1999GC000007 (2000)
  16. Stoner, J.S., J.E.T. Channell, C. Hillaire-Marcel, and C. Kissel, Geomagnetic paleointensity and environmental record from Labrador Sea core MD95-2024: global marine sediment and ice core chronostratigraphy for the last 110 kyr, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 183(1-2), 161-177, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(00)00272-7 (2000)
  17. Voelker, A.H.L., P.M. Grootes, M.-J. Nadeau, and M. Sarnthein, Radiocarbon Levels in the Iceland Sea from 25–53 kyr and their Link to the Earth's Magnetic Field Intensity, Radiocarbon, 42(3), 437-452, doi:10.1017/S0033822200030368 (2000)
  18. Wagner, G., J. Beer, C. Laj, C. Kissel, J. Masarik, R. Muscheler, and H.A. Synal, Chlorine-36 evidence for the Mono Lake event in the Summit GRIP ice core, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 181(1-2), 1-6, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(00)00196-5 (2000)
  19. Watts, W.A., J.R.M. Allen, and B. Huntley, Palaeoecology of three interstadial events during oxygen-isotope Stages 3 and 4: a lacustrine record from Lago Grande di Monticchio, southern Italy, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 155(1-2), 83-93, doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(99)00096-6 (2000)


  1. Alley, R.B., P.A. Mayewski, and E.S. Saltzman, Increasing North Atlantic climate variability recorded in a central Greenland ice core, Polar Geography, 23(2), 119-131, doi:10.1080/10889379909377669 (1999)
  2. Barnola, J.M., Status of the atmospheric CO2 reconstruction from ice cores analyses, Tellus B, 51, 151–155, doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.1999.t01-1-00002.x (1999)
  3. Blunier, T., T.F. Stocker, J. Chappellaz, and D. Raynaud, Phase Lag of Antarctic and Greenland Temperature in the Last Glacial and Link Between CO2 Variations and Heinrich Events,In: Abrantes F., Mix A.C. (eds) Reconstructing Ocean History. Springer, Boston, MA, doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-4197-4_8 (1999)
  4. Fischer, H., M. Wahlen, J. Smith, D. Mastroianni, and B. Deck, Bruce, Ice Core Records of Atmospheric CO2 Around the Last Three Glacial Terminations, Science, 283(5408), 1712-1714, doi:10.1126/science.283.5408.1712 (1999)
  5. Forster, R.R., K.C. Jezek, J. Bolzan, F. Baumgartner, and S.P. Gogineni, Relationships between radar backscatter and accumulation rates on the Greenland ice sheet, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 20(15-16), 3131-3147, doi:10.1080/014311699211660 (1999)
  6. Greve R., Mügge B., Baral D., Albrecht O., Savvin A., Nested high-resolution modelling of the greenland summit region. In: Hutter K., Wang Y., Beer H. (eds) Advances in Cold-Region Thermal Engineering and Sciences. Lecture Notes in Physics, vol 533. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, doi:10.1007/BFb0104190 (1999)
  7. Holmgren, K., W. Karlen, S.E. Lauritzen, J.A. Lee-Thorp, T.C. Partridge, S. Piketh, P. Repinski, C. Stevenson, O. Svanered, P.D. Tyson, A 3000-year high-resolution stalagmite-based record of palaeoclimate for northeastern South Africa, The Holocene, 9(3), 295-309, doi:10.1191/095968399672625464 (1999)
  8. Honrath, R.E., M.C. Peterson, S. Guo, J.E. Dibb, P.B. Shepson, B. Campbell, Evidence of NOx production within or upon ice particles in the Greenland snowpack, Geophysical Research Letters, 26(6), 695–698, doi:10.1029/1999GL900077 (1999)
  9. Hutterli, M.A., R. Röthlisberger, and R.C. Bales, Atmosphere-to-snow-to-firn transfer studies of HCHO at Summit, Greenland, Geophysical Research Letters, 26(12), 1691-1694, doi:10.1029/1999GL900327 (1999)
  10. Johnsen, S.J., H.B. Clausen, J. Jouzel, J. Schwander, A.E. Sveinbjornsdottir, J.W.C. White, Stable isotope records from Greenland deep ice cores; the climate signal and the role of diffusion, Ice physics in the natural and endangered environment, Maratea, Italy, Sept. 7-19, 1997, NATO ASI Series. Series I: Global Environmental Change, 56, 89-107, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-60030-2_6 (1999)
  11. Kahl, J.D.W., J.A. Galbraith, and D.A. Martinez, Decadal-scale variability in long-range atmospheric transport to the Summit of the Greenland ice sheet, Geophysical research letters, 26(4), 481-484, doi:10.1029/1999GL900021 (1999)
  12. Munger, J.W., D.J. Jacob, S.M. Fan, A.S. Colman, and J.E. Dibb, Concentrations and snow-atmosphere fluxes of reactive nitrogen at Summit, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 104(D11), 13721–13734, doi:10.1029/1999JD900192 (1999)
  13. Ram, R., and M.R. Stolz, Possible solar influences on the dust profile of the GISP2 Ice Core from central Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 26(8), 1043–1046, doi:10.1029/1999GL900199 (1999)
  14. Slater, J.F., Source apportionment of chemical species in Greenland snow and firn, Master's Thesis, University of New Hampshire, 69 p. (1999)
  15. Van de Wal, R.S.W., The importance of thermodynamics for modeling the volume of the Greenland Ice Sheet, J. Geophys. Res., 104(D4), 3887–3898, doi:10.1029/1998JD200084 (1999)
  16. Wagner, F., S.J.P. Bohncke, D.L. Dilcher, W.M. Kuerschner, B. van Geel, and H. Visscher, Century-Scale Shifts in Early Holocene Atmospheric CO2 Concentration, Science, 284(5422), 1971-1973, doi:10.1126/science.284.5422.1971 (1999)
  17. Wang, J., Q. Shi , F. Chen, and X. Dunsheng, Rapid oscillations of Chinese monsoon climate since the last deglaciation and its comparison with GISP2 record, Chinese Science Bulletin, 44(3), 284-285, doi:10.1007/BF02896295 (1999)


  1. Baumgartner, S., J. Beer, J. Masarik, G. Wagner, L. Meynadier, and H.A. Synal, Geomagnetic Modulation of the 36Cl Flux in the GRIP Ice Core, Greenland, Science, 279(5355), 1330-1332, doi:10.1126/science.279.5355.1330 (1998)
  2. Biegalski, S.R., L.A. Currie, R.A. Fletcher, G.A. Klouda, and R. Weissenboek, AMS and microprobe analysis of combusted particles in ice and snow, Radiocarbon, 40(1), 3-10, (1998)
  3. Blunier, T., J. Chappellaz, J. Schwander, A. Daellenbach, B. Stauffer, T.F. Stocker, D. Raynaud, J. Jouzel, H.B. Clausen, C.U. Hammer, and S.J. Johnson, Asynchrony of Antarctic and Greenland climate change during the last glacial period, Nature, 394(6695), 739-743, doi:10.1038/29447 (1998)
  4. Boutron, C. F., Vandal, G. M., Fitzgerald, W. F. and Ferrari, C. P., A forty year record of Mercury in central Greenland snow, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3315-3318, doi:10.1029/98GL02422 (1998)
  5. Cuffey, K.M., and E.J. Steig, Isotopic diffusion in polar firn: implications for interpretation of seasonal climate parameters in ice-core records, with emphasis on central Greenland, Journal of Glaciology, 44(147), 273-284, (1998)
  6. Currie, L.A., J.E. Dibb, G.A. Klouda, B.A. Benner, Jr., J.M. Conny, S.R. Biegalski, R. Steven, D.B. Klinedinst, D.R. Cahoon, and N.C. Hsu, The pursuit of isotopic and molecular fire tracers in the polar atmosphere and cryosphere, Radiocarbon, 40(1), 381-390, (1998)
  7. Dahl-Jensen, D., K. Mosegaard, N. Gundestrup, G.D. Clow, S.J. Johnsen, A.W. Hansen, and N. Balling, Past Temperatures Directly from the Greenland Ice Sheet, Science, 282(5387), 268, doi:10.1126/science.282.5387.268 (1998)
  8. Dibb, J., Team pioneers all-winter research at Greenland Summit, Witness the Arctic, 6(2), 1-3, (1998)
  9. Dibb, J.E., R.W. Talbot, J.W. Munger, D.J. Jacob, and S.M. Fan, Air-snow exchange of HNO3 and NOy at Summit, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 103(D3), 3475–3486, doi:10.1029/97JD03132 (1998)
  10. Jaffrezo, J.-L., C.I. Davidson, H.D. Kuhns, M.H. Bergin, R. Hillamo, W. Maenhaut, J.W. Kahl, and J.M. Harris, Biomass burning signatures in the atmosphere of central Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 103(D23), 31067–31078, doi:10.1029/98JD02241 (1998)
  11. Maggi, V., Eemian to last glacial maximum atmospheric microparticles background from the GRIP Project ice-core, Terra Antarctica Reports, 1, 93-96, (1998)
  12. Miners, W.D., Electromagnetic reflections inside ice sheets, Doctoral Thesis, 350 pp., (1998)
  13. Richards, G.R., Orbital Forcing and Endogenous Nonlinearity in the Pleistocene: The Greenland Ice Core, Climatic Change, 38(2), 235-246, doi:10.1023/A:1005327613287 (1998)
  14. Rogers, J.C., J.F. Bolzan, and V.A. Pohjola, Atmospheric circulation variability associated with shallow-core seasonal isotopic extremes near Summit, Greenlands, J. Geophys. Res., 103(D10), 11205–11219, doi:10.1029/98JD00591 (1998)
  15. Sakai, K., and W.R. Peltier, Deglaciation-induced climate variability: an explicit model of the glacial-interglacial transition that simulates both the Bølling/Allerød and Younger-Dryas events, Meteorological Society of Japan Journal, 76(6), 1029-1044, doi:10.2151/jmsj1965.76.6_1029 (1998)
  16. Savarino, J., and M. Legrand, High northern latitude forest fires and vegetation emissions over the last millennium inferred from the chemistry of a central Greenland ice core, J. Geophys. Res., 103(D7), 8267–8279, doi:10.1029/97JD03748 (1998)
  17. Shuman, C.A., R.B. Alley, M.A. Fahnestock, R.A. Bindschadler, J.W.C. White, J. Winterle, and J.R. McConnell, Temperature history and accumulation timing for the snowpack at GISP2, central Greenland, Journal of Glaciology, 44(146), 21-30, doi:10.1017/S0022143000002318 (1998)
  18. Sitar, R. J., J. B. Baker, C. R. Clauer, A. J. Ridley, J. A. Cumnock, V. O. Papitashvili, J. Spann, M. J. Brittnacher, and G. K. Parks, Multi-instrument analysis of the ionospheric signatures of a hot flow anomaly occurring on July 24, 1996, J. Geophys. Res., 103(A10), 23357–23372, doi:10.1029/98JA01916 (1998)
  19. Spurk, M., M. Friedrich, J. Hofmann, S. Remmele, B. Frenzel, H.H. Leuschner, and B. Kromer, Revisions and extension of the Hohenheim oak and pine chronologies; new evidence about the timing of the Younger Dryas/Preboreal transition, Radiocarbon, 40(3), 1107-1116, (1998)
  20. Wang, L., and T. Oba, Tele-connections between East Asia monsoon and the high-latitude climate; a comparison between the GISP 2 ice core record and the high resolution marine records from the Japan and the South China seas, Daiyonki-Kenkyu, The Quaternary Research, 37(3), 211-219, (1998)
  21. White, J.W.C., and E.J. Steig, Timing is everything in a game of two hemispheres, Nature, 394(6695), 717-718, doi:10.1038/29386 (1998)
  22. Zhang, P.Z., X.B. Wang, and S.M. Wang, Hydrogen index and delta 13C records of the lacustrine organic matter about climate instability during the last interglacial, Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 76(6), 1029-1044 (1998)


  1. Anklin, M., J. Schwander, B. Stauffer, J. Tschumi, A. Fuchs, J. M. Barnola, and D. Raynaud, CO2 record between 40 and 8 kyr B.P. from the Greenland Ice Core Project ice core, J. Geophys. Res., 102(C12), 26539–26545, doi:10.1029/97JC00182 (1997)
  2. Currie, L.A., J.E. Dibb, G.A. Klouda, B.A. Benner, J.M. Conny, S.R. Biegalski, D.B. Klinedinst, D.R. Cahoon, and N.C. Hsu, The Pursuit of Isotopic and Molecular Fire Tracers in the Polar Atmosphere and Cryosphere, Radiocarbon, 40(1), 381-390, doi:10.1017/S0033822200018269 (1997)
  3. Dibb, J. E., and J.-L. Jaffrezo, Air-snow exchange investigations at Summit, Greenland: An overview, J. Geophys. Res., 102(C12), 26795–26807, doi:10.1029/96JC02303 (1997)
  4. Gow, A. J., D. A. Meese, R. B. Alley, J. J. Fitzpatrick, S. Anandakrishnan, G. A. Woods, and B. C. Elder, Physical and structural properties of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice core: A review, J. Geophys. Res., 102(C12), 26559–26575, doi:10.1029/97JC00165 (1997)
  5. Kahl, J. D. W., D. A. Martinez, H. Kuhns, C. I. Davidson, J.-L. Jaffrezo and J. M. Harris, Air mass trajectories to Summit, Greenland: A 44-year climatology and some episodic events, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 102, C12, 26861-26875, 97JC0029, doi:10.1029/97JC00296 (1997)
  6. Kuhns, H., C. Davidson, J. Dibb, C. Stearns, M. Bergin, and J.-L. Jaffrezo, Temporal and spatial variability of snow accumulation in central Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D25), 30059–30068, doi:10.1029/97JD02760 (1997)
  7. Maenhaut, W., Hillamo, R., Makela, T., Jaffrezo, J.L., Bergin, M.H., Davidson, C.I., Concentrations and mass size distributions of particulate trace elements at Summit, Greenland, Impact of boreal forest fires, J. Aerosol Sci., Suppl 1, 565-566 (1997)
  8. Zielinski, G. A., J. E. Dibb, Q. Yang, P. A. Mayewski, S. Whitlow, M. S. Twickler, and M. S. Germani, Assessment of the record of the 1982 El Chichón eruption as preserved in Greenland snow, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D25), 30031–30045, doi:10.1029/97JD01574 (1997)


  1. Bergin, M. H., S. N. Pandis, C. I. Davidson, J.-L. Jaffrezo, J. E. Dibb, A. G. Russell, and H. D. Kuhns, Modeling of the processing and removal of trace gas and aerosol species by Arctic radiation fogs and comparison with measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 101(D9), 14465–14478, doi:10.1029/96JD00340 (1996)
  2. Currie, L. A., B. A. Benner, G. A. Klouda, J. M. Conny, and J. E. Dibb, Tracking biomass burning aerosol: From the combustion laboratory to Summit, Greenland, Workshop on Global Climate Change, Radiocarbon, 38 (20) (1996)
  3. Dibb, J.E., Overview of field data on the deposition of aerosol-associated species to the surface snow of polar glaciers, particularly recent work in Greenland, in "Processes of Chemical Exchange between the Atmosphere and Polar Snow" (ed. E. W. Wolff and R. C. Bales) NATO ASI Series, 43 (249-274), Springer, New York, N.Y. (1996)
  4. Dibb, J.E., R.W. Talbot, S.I. Whitlow M. C. Shipham, J. Winterle, J. McConnell, and R. Bales, Biomass burning signatures in the atmosphere and snow at Summit, Greenland: An event on 5 August, 1994, Atmospheric Environment, 30, 553-561, doi:10.1016/1352-2310(95)00328-2 (1996)
  5. Maenhaut, W., Hillamo, R., Makela, T., Jaffrezo, J.L., Bergin, M.H., Davidson, C.I., Detailed Mass Size Distribution Measurements of Particulate Trace Elements at Summit, Greenland, J. Aerosol Sci., Suppl 1, 49-50 (1996)
  6. Steffen, K., J.E. Box, and W. Abdalati, Greenland Climate Network: GC-Net, in Colbeck, S. C. Ed. CRREL 96-27 Special Report on Glaciers, Ice Sheets and Volcanoes, trib. to M. Meier, 98-103 (1996)


  1. Bales, R. C., J. R. McConnell, M. V. Losleben, M. H. Conklin, K. Fuhrer, A. Neftel, J. E. Dibb, J. D. W. Kahl, and C. R. Stearns, Diel variations of H2O2 in Greenland: A discussion of the cause and effect relationship, J. Geophys. Res., 100(D9), 18661–18668, doi:10.1029/95JD01841 (1995)
  2. Bales, R.C., M.V. Losleben, J.R. McConnell, K. Fuhrer, A. Neftel, H2O2 in snow, air and open pore space in firn at Summit, Greenland, Geophysical Research Letters, 22(10), 1261–1264, doi:10.1029/95GL01110
  3. Bergin, M.H., C.I. Davidson, J.E. Dibb, J.L. Jaffrezo, H.D. Kuhns and S.N. Pandis, A simple model to estimate atmospheric concentrations of aerosol chemical species based on snow core chemistry at Summit, Greenland, Geophysical Research Letters, 22, 24, 3517-3520, 95GL03196, doi:10.1029/95GL03196 (1995)
  4. Bergin, M.H., J.-L. Jaffrezo, C.I. Davidson, J.E. Dibb, S.N. Pandis, R. Hillamo, W. Maenhaut, H.D. Kuhns and T. Makela, The contributions of snow, fog, and dry deposition to the summer flux of anions and cations at Summit, Greenland, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 100, D8, 16275-16288, 95JD01267, doi:10.1029/95JD01267 (1995)
  5. Bergin, M.H., C.I. Davidson, J.-L. Jaffrezo, J.E. Dibb, R. Hillamo, H.D. Kuhns, and T. Makela, The contributions of wet, fog and dry deposition to the summer SO42- flux at Summit, Greenland, in, ed., R. J. Delmas, Ice Core Studies of Global Biogeochemical Cycles, NATO ASI Series I, vol. 30, 121-138, Springer-Verlag (1995)
  6. Jaffrezo, J.-L., J.E. Dibb, R.C. Bales, and A. Neftel, Current status of atmospheric studies at Summit (Greenland) and implications for future research, in, ed., R. J. Delmas, Ice Core Studies of Global Biogeochemical Cycles, NATO ASI Series I, vol. 30, 427-458, Springer-Verlag (1995)
  7. Yang, Q., P. A. Mayewski, S. Whitlow, M. Twickler, M. Morrison, R. Talbot, J. Dibb, and E. Linder, Global perspective of nitrate flux in ice cores, J. Geophys. Res., 100(D3), 5113–5121, doi:10.1029/94JD03115 (1995)


  1. Bergin, M.H., Jaffrezo, J.L., Davidson, C.I., Caldow, R., Dibb, J.E., Fluxes of Chemical Species to the Greenland Ice Sheet by Fog and Dry Deposition, Geophys. Cosmochim. Acta, 58(15), 3207-3215, doi:10.1016/0016-7037(94)90048-5 (1994)
  2. Dibb, J.E., Talbot R.W., Bergin, M.H., Soluble Acidic Species at Summit, Greenland, Geophys. Res. Let., 21(15), 1627-1630, doi:10.1029/94GL01031 (1994)
  3. Dunphy, P.P., and J.E. Dibb, 137Cs Gamma-Rays from fallout detected at Summit, Greenland, Journal of Glaciology, 40, 87-92 (1994)
  4. Dunphy, P.P., J.E. Dibb, and E L. Chupp, A gamma-ray detector for in-situ measurements of 137Cs radioactivity in snowfields and glaciers, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 353, 482-485, doi:10.1016/0168-9002(94)91704-3 (1994)
  5. Jaffrezo, J.L., C.I. Davidson, M. Legrand, and J.E. Dibb, Sulfate and MSA in the air and snow on the Greenland ice sheet, Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, 1241-1254, doi:10.1029/93JD02913 (1994)
  6. Whitlow, S.I., P.A. Mayewski, G. Holdsworth, M.S. Twickler, and J.E. Dibb, An ice core based record of biomass burning in North America, 1750-1980, Tellus, 46B, 234-242, doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.1994.t01-2-00006.x (1994)